An important mechanism that has gained power and which, certainly, will contribute significantly with the preservation of the environment is the Environmental Reserve Quota (CRA), provided for by Federal Law No.12.651/2012.
The CRA is an institute whose purpose is to allow the compensation of the preservation of the Legal Reserve in rural properties, and is used as alternative for those who cannot directly comply with their legal commitment.
It is defined by the legislation as a nominative title representative of area with native vegetation, existing or in process of recovery, corresponding to 1 (one) hectare of forest, and it is issued by the qualified agency (federal or state) in favor of the owner. The legislation established the possibility of transfer, either remunerated or free of charge, of the CRA to an individual or public or private legal entity, upon signing of the term by the holder of the CRA and by the acquirer.
The CRA may be negotiated for purposes of regularization of the properties with non - preserved native vegetation, as required by the law. Accordingly, the CRA is a type of incentive for acts of environmental preservation and maintenance, encouraging new businesses involving environmental assets, which brings benefits to the environment as well as to the owner or rural producer.
However, so that the instrument may positively change the rural reality in Brazil, either by regularizing properties without vegetation, or by remunerating owners of areas with large forest coverage, the instrument must be regularized at federal or state level.
Currently, the States of Amazonas, Pará, São Paulo, Goiás and Bahia are at advanced stage of implementation of the state system by which it will be possible to issue the CRAs. The other Brazilian States are also handling the issue, but at a slower pace.