Petroleum companies are coming under increasing pressure from investors, regulators and consumers on their greenhouse gas footprints. This may in the relatively near future expose them to carbon pricing and tariffs, exclusion from key markets such as the EU, bans from financiers and insurers, public protests, and litigation.

Energy firms can reduce their emissions at relatively low cost, but also need to safeguard their contractual relations and business strategies.

In the new world of climate policy and activism, what do companies need to look out for?

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