Private placingsSpecific regulation
Are there specific rules for the private placing of securities? What procedures must be implemented to effect a valid private placing?
Private placements of securities made under the circumstances described under article 5(2) of the Prospectus Law or, as applicable, article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation fall outside the scope of public offerings and, accordingly, are exempted from the obligation to publish a prospectus. See question 2 for a list of offers that are exempt from the obligation to publish a prospectus. There are no specific rules governing the private placing of securities. However, general principles of laws would apply and issuers should endeavour to deliver accurate and non-misleading information on the securities issuance and the private placing process. Their liability could be involved on grounds of general principles of contractual and civil law or liability in tort (see questions 8 and 19).Investor information
What information must be made available to potential investors in connection with a private placing of securities?
There are no specific regulations or legal provisions governing private placement of securities.
General principles of law must, however, apply. This involves investors being treated equally and fairly and having access to the same information when subscribing to the securities. Article 17 of the Prospectus Law sets out that when no prospectus is required, material information provided by an issuer or an offeror and addressed to qualified investors or special categories of investors, including information disclosed in the context of meetings relating to offers of securities, must be disclosed to all qualified investors or special categories of investors to whom the offer is exclusively addressed. Similar provisions are provided for under the Prospectus Regulation.
It is also advisable that the persons who carry out a private placement in Luxembourg inform potential investors that any prospectus relating to the offering of securities has not been submitted to the clearance procedures of the CSSF. They should also take the necessary measures to avoid the placement qualifying as a public offering and require the necessary undertaking from investors that they act for their own account and do not intend to resell the securities under the terms of a public offering. Finally, they should provide accurate and complete information in respect of the placed securities in order to enable the investors to make an informed assessment of the securities.Transfer of placed securities
Do restrictions apply to the transferability of securities acquired in a private placing? And are any mechanisms used to enhance the liquidity of securities sold in a private placing?
There are no particular restrictions on the transferability of securities acquired in a private placement, except that any resale to the public of such securities must be made in accordance with the rules on public offerings (see question 1).
The Law of 6 April 2013 on dematerialised securities has modernised the Law of 1 August 2001 on the circulation of securities by creating a third category of securities alongside securities in bearer or registered form and introduces a general regime for them, thereby providing Luxembourg capital companies the option to issue shares in dematerialised form and for all other issuers to issue dematerialised debt securities governed by Luxembourg law. Generally, the law on dematerialised securities introduces a comprehensive and complete regime covering the issue, conversion, pledging, transmission and conditions required for the issue of dematerialised securities. The Luxembourg legislator took the opportunity to implement certain principles arising from the Unidroit Convention on Substantive Rules for Intermediated Securities dated 9 October 2009. The law provides that the issuance of dematerialised securities (equity and debt) must be registered in an issue account held with one single securities settlement system or one single central account holder. The holding of dematerialised securities may be realised through a chain of holdings involving one or more intermediaries between the security settlement system or central account holder and the ultimate holders of the dematerialised securities. Transfer of dematerialised securities is effected by a book entry transfer between accounts. Payments by the issuer to a securities settlement system or central account holder discharge the issuer. The law offers some additional guarantees to the acquirers of securities against any earlier defective book entry and imposes the obligation for an intermediary to hold sufficient securities equal to the aggregate number of securities credited to the securities accounts maintained for its account holders and for itself.