Regulation and complianceLicensing procedures
Must foreign designers and contractors be licensed locally to work and, if so, what are the consequences of working without a licence?
A foreign architect or engineer cannot practise without a licence from the applicable provincial or territorial body. Information on the licensing requirements for foreign architects and engineers is made available by the Canadian Architectural Certification Board and Engineers Canada. Penalties for practising without the necessary licence include fines, imprisonment, injunctions and prohibitions against collecting fees for unlicensed services.
The licensing of contractors is also regulated provincially. With some notable exceptions, most provinces do not generally require contractors to be licensed with the exception of Quebec, which has a scheme requiring all contractors to be licensed. Additionally, British Columbia requires that residential builders be licensed. In Ontario, residential builders must register with Tarion Warranty Company, which is the province's new home warranty provider.Competition
Do local laws provide any advantage to domestic contractors in competition with foreign contractors?
Generally, there are no advantages afforded to domestic contractors over foreign contractors in procurement arrangements, though certain ‘Canadian content’ requirements may be specified. Further, with respect to tendering for government projects, there are many international agreements that import various requirements for government procurements by requiring transparency and fairness, among other things. This includes the Canada–European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, the Canadian Free Trade Agreement and the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement.Competition protections
What legal protections exist to ensure fair and open competition to secure contracts with public entities, and to prevent bid rigging or other anticompetitive behaviour?
Anti-corruption legislation in Canada exists to address both domestic and international bribery and corruption in the engineering and construction industry relating to procurement, misappropriation, fraud, asset misappropriation, and bribery of domestic and foreign officials.
The federal Competition Act makes it an offence to participate in arrangements such as bid rigging, bid rotation, cover bidding and market division in procurement of government construction contracts.
The Competition Act imposes individual liability for many of these offences. For example, bid rigging provisions prohibit bidders from agreeing not to submit a bid and from submitting bids that are the product of an agreement between bidders.Bribery
If a contractor has illegally obtained the award of a contract, for example by bribery, will the contract be enforceable? Are bribe-givers and bribe-takers prosecuted and, if so, what are the penalties they face? Are facilitation payments allowable under local law?
The federal Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (CFPOA) makes it an offence, punishable by fines and imprisonment, to bribe foreign officials to induce them to influence a foreign state action in awarding construction and engineering contracts. The maximum term of imprisonment for the bribery of foreign officials is 14 years. The Criminal Code also creates offences punishable on indictment for bribing, or attempting to bribe, government officials in connection with procurement of construction contracts.
The Federal Integrity Regime Programme backstops anti-corruption measures through a system of excluding from eligibility for award of government contracts a person or entity convicted under federal anti-corruption legislation.
Although not strictly speaking a component of the Canadian anti-corruption regime, civil and common law liability for fraud, breach of fiduciary duties, asset misappropriation in relation to procurement, and participation in domestic construction and engineering contracts, also serve to enhance the integrity of the industry.Reporting bribery
Under local law, must employees of the project team members report suspicion or knowledge of bribery of government employees and, if so, what are the penalties for failure to report?
No person is obligated to report violations of anti-bribery and anti-corruption provisions under either the CFPOA or the Criminal Code. This legislation also does not require any self-reporting. However, whether a corporation has self-reported is a factor that may be considered by a prosecutor in its determination of whether negotiating a remediation agreement (ie, deferred prosecution agreements as a means of resolving criminal charges against businesses) is in the public interest.Political contributions
Is the making of political contributions part of doing business? If so, are there laws that restrict the ability of contractors or design professionals to work for public agencies because of their financial support for political candidates or parties?
There is no express restriction under local law that prevents contractors or design professionals from working with public agencies because of their financial support for political candidates or parties. However, the bribery and corruption offences are broadly worded and may capture a political contribution in certain circumstances. For example, the Criminal Code states that it is an offence for a person or an entity, to retain a contract with the government, to directly or indirectly give any valuable consideration for the purpose of promoting the election of a candidate or party of candidates (section 121(2) of the Criminal Code; see https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/page-30.html#h-117813).Compliance
Is a construction manager or other construction professional acting as a public entity’s representative or agent on a project (and its employees) subject to the same anti-corruption and compliance as government employees?
Pursuant to the Criminal Code, it is an offence for anyone who is an agent to receive a secret commission by directly or indirectly demanding or accepting any reward, advantage or benefit for doing or not doing any act relating to the affairs or business of the agent's principal. This provision applies to both the public and private sectors and may be applicable to construction managers or other construction professionals where they act as an agent (section 426 of the Criminal Code; see https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/page-89.html#h-122942.)
With respect to conflicts of interest, in practice, many contracts with government entities impose detailed disclosure obligations and conflict of interest guidelines on project participants.Other international legal considerations
Are there any other important legal issues that may present obstacles to a foreign contractor attempting to do business in your jurisdiction?
Foreign contractors should seek legal advice to best evaluate any additional obstacles to doing business that it may face in its particular circumstance.
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16 June 2020