Be aware of massive changes in withholding as a result of the new tax law, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in 2017.

Employment during the summer is a great opportunity for students to build a resume, gain experience, create valuable connections and develop some financial independence. Summer jobs can also provide students with spending money, assist with college tuition payments (or more realistically, one semester of books), start a 401(k) or Roth IRA and potentially offer practical experience for a future career. Summer employment offers experiences that are often not available or cannot be replicated in a classroom.

Along with such benefits, summer employment will introduce students to a five-letter word that up until this point in life probably had very little meaning, but will affect them regardless of the amount of income earned—taxes! They will learn the reality that earning $15 an hour does not equal $15 an hour in their pockets.

Here are a few notable tax tips for students with or contemplating summer jobs:

Employee Paperwork

When you get a new job, you will need to complete IRS Form W-4, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate. Employers use this form to determine how much federal income tax to withhold from your pay. The lower the number of “exemptions” claimed, the higher your income tax withholding. Conversely, the higher the number of “exemptions” claimed, the lower your income tax withholding. Irrespective of amounts withheld for income taxes, Social Security and Medicare tax will be withheld at a 6.2 percent and 1.45 percent rate, respectively, and is not available for refund unless you earn more than $132,900. A student should be so lucky. Be aware of massive changes in withholding as a result of the new tax law, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in 2017. Calculations to determine proper withholding can be cumbersome and confusing. If you’re not sure, seek professional guidance.

If you are treated as an employee, your employer withholds tax from your paychecks. If you are treated as self-employed (think babysitting, lawn care, painting, consulting), you may have to pay estimated tax directly to the IRS on a quarterly basis. If you earn $400 or more, you will need to file a federal tax return.

Self-Employed Individuals

Like many students, you may have multiple informal jobs, such as babysitting, lawn care, landscaping, painting, swimming lessons, web and social media consulting and the like. Earning $400 or more may subject you to self-employment tax reporting. While self-employment income can be offset by qualified expenses incurred for the production of the self-employment income, it is crucial to keep detailed records of receipts and expenses incurred and paid. Also, be aware of the hobby loss rules, which limit the deduction of losses from income when there is no profit motive. The hobby loss rules are complex and caution is advised. Be sure to seek professional advice if you suffer losses from self-employment activity. Under either an employee or self-employed situation, it is prudent to set aside money to pay the tax that may be due when the returns are filed. Otherwise, you could be subject to late payment penalties, underpayment penalties and interest charges.

Employed by Parent

Working with mom or dad has many nontax and tax benefits. From a tax perspective, bona fide wages paid by a parent to a child who is under the age of 18 are not subject to Social Security and Medicare taxes, or Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA). Wages paid to your child who is 18 years or older, but under 21, are likewise not subject to FUTA. Additionally, parents may claim the child’s wages as a deductible business expense, provided the child is treated as a regular employee, wages are paid in dollars (as opposed to food, shelter, etc.) and a W-2 Wage and Tax Statement is filed.

Tip Income

The service industry is where many students land summer employment and where compensation is primarily tip-driven. All tip income is taxable. Any cash tips of $20 or more per month are required to be reported to the employer. Also, you must report all of your yearly tips on your tax return.

The key to accurately reporting tip income is organization and detailed recordkeeping. In the event of an IRS audit targeting unreported tip income, interest and penalty assessments can be significant. There are a variety of recordkeeping techniques and resources available to assist with accurate reporting of tip income, including tip tracking apps. Popular apps, such as Just the Tips, TipSee and Tip Counter, may help keep track of daily, weekly and monthly tips as they are earned and recorded.

Out-of-State Employment Adds Complexity

Another consideration to keep in mind while engaged in seasonal employment is the job location. Physically working in one state but residing in another state can add certain complexities to tax reporting, including the filing of additional state income tax returns except for Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington and Wyoming, which impose no state income tax. In most states, taxes will be withheld and paid to the state of employment.

However, reciprocal agreements, which many states have in place with neighboring states, eliminate the need for nonresident state tax withholding from the wages of nonresident seasonal employees―and some of the complexity. For example, if you reside in Pennsylvania but work in Indiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Virginia or West Virginia, the out-of-state employer will withhold Pennsylvania income taxes with no taxes withheld or paid to that employer’s state. The table below summarizes states with reciprocal agreements presently in place.

States with Reciprocal Agreements

Resident State

Working State

Any State

District of Columbia

Arizona

California, Indiana, Oregon or Virginia

Illinois

Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan or Wisconsin

Indiana

Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania or Wisconsin

Iowa

Illinois

Kentucky

Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia or Wisconsin

Maryland

District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, Virginia or West Virginia

Michigan

Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, Ohio or Wisconsin

Minnesota

Michigan or North Dakota

Montana

North Dakota

New Jersey

Pennsylvania

North Dakota

Minnesota or Montana

Ohio

Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Pennsylvania or West Virginia

Pennsylvania

Indiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Virginia or West Virginia

Virginia

District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania or West Virginia

West Virginia

Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania or Virginia

Wisconsin

Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky or Michigan

If you are working in a state without a reciprocal agreement with your resident state, you will be subject to both resident and nonresident state income taxes. For example, if you reside in Pennsylvania but work in New York, you will need to file in both states. However, in most cases a credit for taxes paid to the nonresident state will be available on your resident state tax return subject to certain limitations. Multistate tax reporting is complex and rules vary from state to state, so be sure to seek guidance if you find yourself in this situation.

Retirement Planning

It’s never too early for retirement planning and wealth accumulation. The power of compounding is magical. Students with summer jobs should consider contributing to a Roth IRA. Since contributions to a Roth IRA are funded with after-tax dollars, they provide for tax-free growth and more importantly tax-free distributions in retirement. The only eligibility requirement to contribute to a Roth, assuming the student’s income will not exceed income limitations, would be earned income. You can contribute up to the amount of money earned for the year, with a maximum contribution of $5,500. So, a yearly contribution of $5,500 for the first six years with no additional contributions for 40 years until retirement at 6.5 percent annually results in a whopping balance of nearly $500,000.

TAG’s Perspective

Summer is a time for fun and relaxation, as well as an opportunity for high school and college students to gain valuable working experience and build a resume while making some money to lighten the financial burden of parents, start a savings program, fund a retirement plan and create the beginning of a financial plan. With proper tax planning, including withholding, education tax and multistate tax strategies, along with a smart financial plan design, this summer can be memorable for many reasons.