This entry provides an overview of how enterprise customers shape the underlying business deals in telecommunications services agreements. In the previous entry, we discussed the primary objectives enterprise customers look to achieve in negotiating telecommunications services agreements. In our initial entry in this series, we discussed the challenge counsel for enterprise customers face in confining telecommunications services agreements to the four corners of the customer contract.

Overview. There are two basic approaches for putting these deals together. The first is the default or “seat of the pants” approach in which the customer (telecom manager) limits discussions to the current provider(s), typically 3 to 6 months prior to expiration of the current contract and, based on informal discussions with consultants or other customers, asks for a “market-based” reduction in rates for a new three-year deal, maybe remembering to request pricing for replacement IP services. The second is to initiate a more structured process 9 to 14 months prior to the expiration of the current agreement by engaging an experienced consultant to develop a demand set for an RFP to issue to both incumbent and potential successor carriers and to advise on trends in carrier services and pricing, particularly the transition to IP-based services offerings. This entry focuses on the second approach.

Caveat: The incumbent often prevails even under a systematic, well-planned procurement. Transitioning to successor providers is resource-intensive and, for some period, entails the payment of services to the incumbent and the successor provider during the transition process. Hot cuts are not the rule for major enterprises, particularly at critical locations. Caveat to the Caveat. If there is insufficient time to initiate a transition to a successor provider (and avoid a substantial increase in service pricing per the rates in the incumbent’s price guide), both the incumbent provider and its competitive providers likely will not propose market-based pricing and terms and conditions. Thus, the RFP should be issued in a timely manner to allow for competitive, responsive bids and for a doable transition to the successor provider(s).

Value of Telecom Consultants. There are several reasons for engaging a competent consultant. First, there are no published lists of market-based rates; carrier guide rates are rarely accepted by customers. There is no equivalent of published commodity prices (crude oil, corn or pork bellies) or web sites such as Edmunds or TrueCar for enterprise telecommunications service pricing. Even the “best of the best” telecom managers have a limited knowledge base of current market pricing; unless they have changed jobs (frequently), these persons’ pricing knowledge is limited to the company’s last agreement or competitive pricing review of 12 to 18 months ago. Experienced consultants have more insights into current market pricing.

Consultants offer two other value-added services. The first is the development of the enterprise’s demand set for its RFP. Telecom service pricing is based largely on volume, customer locations, and service mix. Two aspects of developing a demand set are determining current usage of existing services at current and planned locations (or anticipating a reduction in locations) and selecting the services (type and capacity) that the customer is looking to acquire. This entails a review of bills and invoices, existing network design, current services, expected growth or contraction of the enterprise’s requirements, and desired services. The two latter considerations are driven by the customer with input from the procurement consultants.

The second value-added is the consultant’s RFP templates. In addition to setting out the demand set and desired services, the RFP elicits information on pricing, other business considerations and legal terms and conditions. The RFP is the starting point for negotiations. The consultant’s RFP should be reviewed within the enterprise by the telecom/IT department, procurement group, legal, and, perhaps, risk management. A company may wish to incorporate the consultant’s RFP into its standard RFP documents or modify the consultant’s RFP. A related consideration to be determined upfront is the extent to which the consultant is the principal contact and whether the consultant will take the lead in discussions with the carriers.

Revenue Commitments and Pricing Reviews. Several other economic considerations are central to the business deal in addition to rates (recurring charges, non-recurring charges, waivers and credits). The first is the minimum revenue commitment which the customer commits to spend either annually or over the term of the agreement. Exclusive purchase commitments are rare. The minimum commitment level is based on projected expenditures at the proposed rates. Currently, term commitments with annual commitments for each renewal period are more common. The minimum commitment is increasingly supplemented by “incentive credits.” The best pricing or highest discount under the agreement is achieved only when expenditures exceed some dollar amount above the minimum commitment level, qualifying for the incentive credits.

Agreements also include a so-called “business downturn/downsizing” provision. This clause is triggered when unexpected reductions in projected expenditures occur due to downturns, divestitures or downsizing in the customer’s business. This clause addresses the risk of paying a hefty sum that is the difference between the minimum commitment and the actual (reduced) level of expenditures. The typical quid pro quo is an increase in rates or an increase in the term of the agreement or both.

The second major economic consideration is the competitive pricing review. These reviews are typically conducted annually or every 18 months. Involvement with consultants are often essential for the customer to have some insight into current market trends. For enterprises with stable or growing expenditures and general satisfaction with the incumbent’s services, services agreements may be extended based on the price negotiations that follow the path of competitive pricing reviews.