An extract from The Dominance and Monopolies Review - 7th edition
Section 5, Paragraph 1 KartG contains a general prohibition on abusing a dominant market position, and also sets out a non-exhaustive list of specific types of abusive conduct (Section 5, Paragraph 1, Nos. 1 to 5 KartG). In general, the concept of abuse of a dominant market position under Section 5 KartG largely corresponds to the provision in Article 102 TFEU. Therefore, the case law of the European Commission as well as the EU courts in the field of dominance is also relevant to domestic Austrian cases.ii Exclusionary abuses
Section 5 KartG prohibits exclusionary conduct ranging from predatory pricing to margin squeeze, loyalty rebates and (long-term) exclusivity clauses in vertical agreements, as well as tying and bundling, price tying and refusal to deal or supply.
With regard to predatory pricing, the Austrian Supreme Court followed the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rulings in AKZO, Tetra Pak II and Post Danmark, according to which prices below the average variable costs are considered an indication of exclusionary conduct. It further held that in cases where prices are set above the average variable costs, but still below the overall costs, they are only considered abusive if it can be demonstrated that they are used to exclude competitors.
By reference to the Post Danmark judgment, the Supreme Court confirmed the long run incremental cost method used in a case by a court-appointed expert to establish the existence of predatory pricing.
Further, Section 5, Paragraph 1, No. 5 KartG (as Article 102 TFEU) specifically stipulates the abusive character of selling goods below cost. Based on the case law of the Austrian cartel courts, this provision only applies to the selling of goods below cost for a certain period and not to selling services. Moreover, Section 5, Paragraph 2 KartG stipulates that the dominant company may rebut an appearance of sales below cost or provide an objective justification (e.g., because the expiry date of the products is approaching).
To date, the OGH has not had to issue a material decision on a margin squeeze case. However, the OLG held in an obiter dictum in 2002 that a company with a dominant position is not obliged to set its prices at a level to guarantee its competitors commercial success. According to the OLG, this is also true for cases where competitors purchase an intermediate product from the dominant company. Once a question of material law related to margin squeeze conduct has reached the OGH, it will be seen whether it will uphold this rather sceptical approach by the OLG or will follow the ECJ's case law.
With regard to rebates, the OGH follows the ECJ's distinction between generally admissible quantity rebates and generally inadmissible target and loyalty rebates. However, case law on exclusionary conduct stemming from inadmissible rebates is rather limited in Austria.
The OGH has dealt with a number of cases relating to the obligation to contract by dominant companies. For example, the OGH recently affirmed the obligation of the Austrian Federal Railways to allow its only private competitor, Westbahn, to participate in the Austrian Federal Railways electronic timetable information system.iii Discrimination
Section 5, Paragraph 1, No. 3 KartG prohibits discrimination of contract partners by the application of dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage. A similar prohibition of discrimination for wholesalers and retailers (even if not in a dominant position) is contained in Section 2, Paragraph 1 NahversorgungsG (see above; a violation against this prohibition allows the contracting party to claim for injunctive relieve but does not lead to any fines). Under both provisions, the most common discriminatory behaviour is discriminatory pricing.
A transaction is considered to be equivalent and requires equal treatment where the various contract partners are in the same position towards the supplier. With regard to possible objective justifications, the OGH takes the view that, inter alia, different delivery terms, transportation costs or statutory frameworks in different countries can provide objective justifications for applying different conditions to equivalent transactions.iv Exploitative abuses (including excessive pricing)
The main statutory provision prohibiting exploitative abuses, including (but not limited to) excessive pricing is Section 5, Paragraph 1, No. 1 KartG. This provision was amended with the Cartel Amendment Act 2012, and changed from a wording that corresponded to Article 102, Letter a TFEU to an almost identical wording as Section 19, Paragraph 2, No. 2 of the German Act against Restraints of Competition. However, the case law relating to the former Section 5, Paragraph 1, No. 1 KartG may still be used for interpretation purposes.
So far, there has been only one case before the OGH based on this amended provision. Therein the OGH, by referring to German case law, held that requesting excessive prices or other exploitative conditions from a contract partner is not limited to contract negotiations, but is also applicable to an ongoing contractual relationship when refusing to lower prices or allow changes to the contract. Moreover, it stipulated that only a significant price excess compared to the price that would have to be paid in a competitive environment falls under Section 5, Paragraph 1, No. 1 KartG.