A Superbowl win. An upset of the previously undefeated No. 1 college basketball team. Wisconsin is on a roll. But of greatest interest to our readers is, late last month, Wisconsin's Governor Scott Walker (R) signed into law new tort reform legislation in that state. The bill is regarded as the most extensive set of changes to Wisconsin's civil litigation system in decades. Tort reform as a vehicle to improve Wisconsin's business climate was a campaign theme for the governor in the last election, and the reform bill was one of the first agenda items for the new legislature in January. Republican majorities had been elected in both the state Senate and the Assembly last fall.
The Act contains several provisions that will affect plaintiffs and defendants in product liability litigation.
- Punitive damages received by the plaintiff may not exceed twice the amount of any compensatory damages recovered by the plaintiff or $200,000, whichever is greater.
- The law establishes a higher legal standard for recovering punitive damages, as the plaintiff must prove that the defendant either acted with intent to cause injury to a particular person or persons or that the defendant knew that the action of the defendant that resulted in injury to one or more persons was practically certain to result in injury to one or more persons.
- The act adopts a Daubert-like standard for experts. The expert testimony must be based
- upon sufficient facts or data, the testimony must be the product of reliable principles and methods, and the witness must have applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case.
- With respect to strict liability claims, the bill borrows the definition of defect from the Restatement (Third) of Torts. A product is defective in design if the foreseeable risks of
- harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by the adoption of a reasonable alternative design by the manufacturer and the omission of the alternative
- design renders the product not reasonably safe.
- In an action for damages caused by a manufactured product based on a claim of strict liability, evidence of remedial measures taken subsequent to the sale of the product is not admissible for the purpose of showing a manufacturing defect in the product, a defect in the design of the product, or a need for a warning or instruction, but may be used to show a reasonable alternative design that existed at the time the product was sold.
- The law creates a rebuttable presumption that the product is not defective if it complied with relevant standards under federal or state law.
- The act also modifies the market share or “risk contribution’’ theory that Wisconsin adopted in the lead paint litigation. The new law reaffirms the general rule that manufacturers, distributors, and sellers of a product may be held liable for damages only if the injured party proves that the specific product that caused the injury was manufactured, distributed, sold or promoted by the defendant. The only exception is when a claimant can prove all of the following:
- That no other lawful process exists for the claimant to seek any redress from any other person for the injury or harm.
- That the claimant has suffered an injury or harm that can be caused only by a manufactured product chemically and physically identical to the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm.
- That the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or promoter of a product manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted a complete integrated product, in the form used by the claimant or to which the claimant was exposed, and that meets all of the following criteria:
- Is chemically and physically identical to the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm.
- Was manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted in the geographic market where the injury or harm is alleged to have occurred during the time period in which the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm was manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted.
- Was distributed or sold without labeling or any distinctive characteristic that identified the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or promoter.
- The action names, as defendants, those manufacturers of a product who collectively manufactured at least 80 percent of all products sold in this state during the relevant production period.
- The law permits defendants to claim damages for frivolous claims, that is, for actions undertaken solely for the purpose of harassing or maliciously injuring another.
- Regarding comparative fault in an action by any person to recover damages for injuries caused by a defective product based on a claim of strict liability, if the injured party’s percentage of total causal responsibility for the injury is greater than the percentage resulting from the defective condition of the product, the injured party may not, based on the defect in the product, recover damages from the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or any other person responsible for placing the product in the stream of commerce.
A good model for other states considering tort reform.
More than any ad campaign, a civil justice system that is equitable and reliably predictable signals to employers that a state is truly open for business. Particularly in light of recent liability-expanding state court decisions, the new reform package enacted by Wisconsin will help convince employers that it’s a new day in the Badger State, according to the American Tort Reform Association.