The Commission has imposed a total of € 61,120,000 fines on nine companies – Almamet, Donau Chemie, Ecka Granulate, Holding Slovenske elektrarne (for its former subsidiary TDR Metalurgija), Novácke chemické závody and its former parent 1.garantovaná, SKW Stahl-Metallurgie and its former parent companies Evonik Degussa and Arques industries – for violating the EC Treaty’s ban on cartels and restrictive business practices. Akzo Nobel also participated but was not fined because it revealed the existence of the cartel to the Commission. Between 2004 and 2007 the companies fixed prices and shared markets for calcium carbide powder, calcium carbide granulates and magnesium granulates in a substantial part of the European Economic Area. Calcium carbide powder and magnesium granulates are used in the steel industry for desulphurisation or deoxidation purposes. Calcium carbide granulates are used for the production of acetylene, a welding gas. The fine for Evonik Degussa was increased by 50% because it had previously taken part in similar infringements.