On August 16, 2012, EPA published its final NSPS and NESHAPs for the Oil and Gas Industry. 77 Fed. Reg. 49490. These comprehensive rules are intended to reduce VOC emissions associated with oil and gas production, requiring "green" completions and other efforts to control emissions. EPA is touting the rules as achieving a 95 percent reduction in emissions from new hydraulically fractured wells. The rules establish new requirements for (1) natural gas wells, (2) natural gas gathering and boosting stations, (3) gas processing plants, (4) natural gas transmission compressor stations, and (5) certain equipment and vessels associated with oil wells. The regulations generally do not impact emissions from oil well production and are primarily focused on natural gas production. While the standards are very likely to be challenged, they will go into effect on October 15, 2012.