On September 23, Federal Reserve Governor Jerome Powell spoke at the second annual Community Banking Research and Policy Conference, co-sponsored by the Federal Reserve and Conference of State Bank Supervisors. Governor Powell commented on the decline in the number of community banks over the past three decades, stating those remaining community banks have “struggled to survive” in the face of significant challenges, including the burden of regulatory compliance. The research presented at the conference focused on the following four main issues: (i) bank formation, behavior, and performance; (ii) the effects specific government policy has on community bank behavior; (iii) the effects government policy has on the profitability and viability of community banks; and (iv) how regulatory policy affects the structure of the U.S. banking system and the viability of community banks.