The U.S. Supreme Court last month decided the Noel Canning case, unanimously holding that President Obama’s proposed recess appointments of Terrence Flynn, Sharon Block and Richard Griffin to be members of the National Labor Relations Board (Board) were unconstitutional. The Court reasoned that the brief Senate break in January 2012, during which time the appointments were made, was of insufficient length to be a “recess.” Thus, the Court found the Board order against the soda pop bottling company, Noel Canning, was invalid because the Board lacked a quorum, as three of its five members were improperly appointed.
Noel Canning will have a significant impact on the board. Hundreds of board decisions between January 2012 (when the appointments were made) and August 2013 (when new appointees were confirmed by the Senate) will likely be invalidated and reconsidered by the current Board, which now has a full contingent of five Senate-confirmed members.
Chairman Mark Gaston Pearce issued a brief statement shortly after the Noel Canning decision issued, acknowledging the possibility that the Board cases in which the January 2012 recess appointees participated may have to be revisited. Further, NLRB general counsel Richard Griffin recently stated that the Board has already taken action in about 100 cases pending in federal appellate courts, settling decisions in almost 50 cases and asking federal courts to remand dozens of other cases to the Board.
Among the decisions directly impacted by Noel Canning that the Board will likely revisit are those involving such contested issues as: (1) an employer’s ability to promulgate rules regulating employee behavior at the workplace and on social media; (2) to limit access to its premises by off-duty employees; (3) to discontinue deductions of union dues after expiration of its collective bargaining agreement; (4) to obtain a mandatory arbitration agreement with a class action waiver; (5) to not continue granting wage increases after the expiration of a collective-bargaining agreement; (6) to impose discipline on employees during first contract negotiations; (7) to refuse to provide witness statements to a union during the employer’s internal investigation of employee misconduct; and (8) to instruct employees to maintain confidentiality during internal workplace investigations.
It is unlikely, however, that the results will differ materially even if the current Board revisits all the decisions issued by the former Board comprised of the invalidly appointed recess appointees because the current Board, like the prior Board, remains comprised of a majority of Democratic appointees.
That said, there is no guarantee that all decisions will be decided identically, and at the very least, revisiting these cases will certainly hamper the current board’s ability to decide pending cases.
In addition to the case decisions that will likely be invalidated, any administrative action in which the recess appointees participated may also be invalidated, including the appointments of regional directors and administrative law judges as well as perhaps even the delegation of Board authority to the general counsel regarding temporary injunction proceedings. It can be argued that all official actions by the Board during the prior period when it lacked a three-member quorum were invalid.
Thus, it is possible that decisions issued by improperly appointed Regional Directors and administrative law judges may be found invalid as well.
All told, the effect of Noel Canning is likely to be significant, invalidating numerous board decisions and hampering the Board’s ability to decide new cases, though this delay will likely not prevent the Board from issuing its new representation election rule, which would significantly shorten the union election period, before year end.
Likewise, it is unlikely that Noel Canning will impact the General Counsel’s emphasis on using temporary injunctive relief for first-contract bargaining cases, unlawful discharges in organizing campaigns and successor cases involving the successor’s refusal-to-hire union-represented employees.
It remains to be seen whether the effect of Noel Canning will prevent the current board from issuing decisions in ongoing cases before year end concerning such currently contested issues as (1) whether college football players are employees; (2) an employer’s right to prevent its employees from using its e-mail system for union and other protected, concerted purposes; (3) an employer’s right to refuse to provide financial information to a union when it does not claim an “inability to pay;” (4) whether the post-arbitral deferral standard should be more limited; (5) whether the joint employer standard should be broadened; (6) whether a “perfectly clear” successor should have a broader obligation to bargain with the union before setting initial terms of employment than it does presently; (7) the legality of any aspect of a “neutrality” or card check agreements or other pre-recognition agreements: and (8) the rights of contractor employees, who work on other employer’s property, to have access to the premises to communicate with workers or the public.