In an Opinion dated November 12, 2013, the Chief Administrative Law Judge for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an Initial Decision imposing a US$2.5 million penalty against the only U.S. producer of basic hexavalent chromium chemicals, Elementis Chromium Inc., for failing to submit an epidemiological study to EPA pursuant to the requirements of Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).