Today, the European Commission (Commission) ruled that Ireland granted Apple, Inc. “selective tax treatment” that gave it a “significant advantage over other businesses." The Commission ordered Apple to pay $14.5 billion (€13 billion) in back taxes, plus interest – the largest penalty in the Commission’s three-year initiative targeting corporate tax avoidance. Both Apple and the Irish government vowed to appeal.

EU state-aid investigations have been criticized in the United States, including by both the Treasury Department and Congress. For prior DTU coverage, click here.