Is there an immunity programme? If so, what are the basic elements of the programme? What is the importance of being ‘first in’ to cooperate?
Individuals and corporations may apply for leniency through the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) leniency programme. If the application is granted, the applicant receives full immunity from criminal prosecution. Applicants that satisfy the requirements of the Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA), Pub L No. 108-237, 118 Stat. 661 (22 June 2004), may also become eligible for benefits in private civil cases, including a reduction from treble to single damages, and the elimination of joint and several liability. The requirements under ACPERA include cooperation with plaintiffs in civil actions. In October 2020, ACPERA's sunset provision was repealed and the act was reauthorised and signed into law.
To obtain leniency, an applicant must ordinarily be the first to report illegal activity to the government, before the commencement of an investigation (Type A leniency). This ‘first in’ requirement is true for both individuals and corporations. The applicant must not have been the ringleader of the cartel, must have promptly and effectively terminated its participation in the cartel, must fully disclose all relevant facts regarding the illegal activity and fully cooperate with the government investigation, and must make restitution to victims. Further, the DOJ must determine that granting leniency would not be unfair to others. Even if an investigation has already begun, obtaining leniency may still be possible for a first-in applicant as long as all other requirements are met and the DOJ does not already have evidence that warrants a conviction (Type B leniency).
For individual applicants who do not meet all the requirements, leniency may still be possible at the discretion of the DOJ, but it is usually more limited.
Further details about the DOJ’s leniency programme may be found on the DOJ’s website.Subsequent cooperating parties
Is there a formal programme providing partial leniency for parties that cooperate after an immunity application has been made? If so, what are the basic elements of the programme? If not, to what extent can subsequent cooperating parties expect to receive favourable treatment?
Formal leniency is available only to the first-in applicant, and no formal leniency programme exists for cooperating parties who are not the leniency applicant. Under Federal Sentencing Guidelines (the Guidelines), however, cooperation is a mitigating factor that judges may consider in sentencing. Similarly, the DOJ has the discretion to treat cooperating parties with greater leniency during an investigation or the plea-bargaining process.
The DOJ also has the discretion to enter into non-prosecution agreements (NPAs) and deferred prosecution agreements (DPAs). In practice, NPAs and DPAs are rarely used in the cartel context because of the existence of the DOJ’s leniency programme. In rare instances, however, applicants who were not ‘first in’ for leniency have received DPAs as a reward for their efforts in cooperating with the DOJ’s investigation. NPAs remain a disfavoured approach for all but the ‘first in’ applicant; however, the DOJ recently updated their policies to allow prosecutors to grant DPAs (although not NPAs) to cooperating companies with effective compliance programmes (consistent with the DOJ’s guidance on compliance programmes) in place. A compliance programme in and of itself does not guarantee a DPA, but an effective compliance programme will be taken into account when choosing whether to grant a DPA. NPAs and DPAs are more commonly granted to individuals who cooperate with the government’s investigation, rather than corporations.Going in second
How is the second cooperating party treated? Is there an ‘immunity plus’ or ‘amnesty plus’ treatment available? If so, how does it operate?
To receive amnesty under the DOJ’s leniency programme, the applicant must be the first to file. There is no formal leniency available for subsequent cooperating parties.
There is no significance to being ‘second in’, although, generally, the earlier a company begins cooperating with the government the greater the potential it has to receive a downward departure from the fine recommended under the Guidelines.
The DOJ’s ‘amnesty plus’ programme is designed to create an incentive for later-cooperating parties to confess wrongful conduct outside the scope of the existing investigation. Under amnesty plus, if a later-cooperating party applies for leniency for one or more other cartels, that party, in addition to receiving full leniency for those separate cartel violations, would receive a considerable discount on any criminal fine assessed concerning the initial cartel violation. This contrasts with the DOJ’s ‘penalty plus’ policy, under which the government will seek fines and prison sentences at the upper end of the range recommended by the Guidelines if a company was aware of additional antitrust violations but chose not to report them.Approaching the authorities
Are there deadlines for initiating or completing an application for immunity or partial leniency? Are markers available and what are the time limits and conditions applicable to them?
To preserve its position as the first filer, a company that finds evidence of criminal cartel behaviour should contact the DOJ as quickly as possible to obtain a marker. The marker is then valid for a certain time (often 30 days, although this may be extended or shortened on a case-by-case basis) to allow the company to perfect its application. This process usually involves a rapid and comprehensive internal investigation, involving document collection and review and witness interviews.
The decision of whether to seek amnesty is highly fact- and company-specific. If the evidence of criminal activity is unambiguous and the company is prepared to devote the considerable human and financial resources demanded of an amnesty applicant as part of its obligation to cooperate fully, seeking amnesty quickly may be advisable. If the evidence is ambiguous or weak, or the company judges that the risks and burdens of cooperation outweigh the potential benefits, amnesty may not be the company’s strongest option. Given the government’s high burden to prove criminal liability beyond a reasonable doubt, if strong defences (eg, jurisdictional or statute of limitations defences) exist, the better option may be to put the government to its proof.
If amnesty is unavailable, the company may face the decision whether to plead guilty or to take its risks at trial. As with the decision whether to seek amnesty, the decision whether to plead is highly defendant- and situation-specific, requiring consideration of the strength of the evidence, the strength of any available defences, and the risks associated with accepting a plea, which could expose the defendant to liability in follow-on civil cases.Cooperation
What is the nature, level and timing of cooperation that is required or expected from an immunity applicant? Is there any difference in the requirements or expectations for subsequent cooperating parties that are seeking partial leniency?
Leniency recipients must cooperate fully and transparently with the DOJ’s investigation in exchange for complete immunity. Also, if a leniency recipient satisfies the ACPERA requirements (including cooperation with the civil plaintiffs), it may be eligible for reduced civil damages (single, rather than treble), and may avoid joint and several liability.
There are no formal requirements defining the level of cooperation expected of subsequent cooperating parties. Ordinarily, the DOJ will request desired documents or access to witnesses, and then the party’s response will be the product of negotiation. If a party pleads guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence, cooperation requirements are usually outlined in the plea agreement.Confidentiality
What confidentiality protection is afforded to the immunity applicant? Is the same level of confidentiality protection applicable to subsequent cooperating parties? What information will become public during the proceedings and when?
The DOJ must keep confidential the identity of the applicant, the fact it has been granted amnesty, and the substance of any negotiations with the applicant or subsequent cooperating parties. Depending on the nature of the cartel and the parties involved, however, the identity of the leniency applicant often does not remain a secret, at least among the other defendants. Plea agreements, by contrast, and the cooperation provisions contained within them, are made public.
In the related civil litigation, both the fact of amnesty and the ordinary-course materials produced by the recipient may become discoverable. Parties usually negotiate strict protective orders limiting the use of such materials to the litigation and designate documents with varying levels of confidentiality restrictions during discovery. If the case goes to trial, the confidentiality of these materials will be determined on a document-by-document basis, although given the public interest in the adjudicative process, it is often impossible to prevent disclosure of all documents. Trials are typically open to the public.Settlements
Does the investigating or prosecuting authority have the ability to enter into a plea bargain, settlement, deferred prosecution agreement (or non-prosecution agreement) or other binding resolution with a party to resolve liability and penalty for alleged cartel activity? What, if any, judicial or other oversight applies to such settlements?
Most criminal cartel prosecutions are resolved via plea agreement rather than at trial. The parties typically negotiate the scope of the defendant’s agreement, often using the Guidelines as a starting point for negotiations. The negotiated agreement must be presented to the court for approval. Judges have the discretion to approve or modify such proposed agreements but usually defer to the DOJ’s recommendation.Corporate defendant and employees
When immunity or partial leniency is granted to a corporate defendant, how will its current and former employees be treated?
When a corporate defendant receives immunity under the DOJ’s leniency programme, current employees, officers and directors will also receive immunity if they admit any wrongdoing and continue to assist the government’s investigation. The DOJ also has the discretion to include specifically named former employees, officers and directors in the grant of immunity.
Where a company agrees to a plea bargain, its directors, officers and employees will similarly receive immunity from future prosecution, save for those who have been carved out of the plea. The DOJ’s practice is to carve out several targets of the investigation who may be indicted for wrongful conduct associated with the violations outlined in the plea agreement. Not all carved-out individuals are indicted and fewer still are ultimately prosecuted. These carved-out individuals are often, although not always, higher-ranking executives who held pricing authority and actively promoted the cartel activity, whose prosecutions may serve as a warning to others. The DOJ may also choose to carve out individuals who attended cartel meetings and entered into the agreements on behalf of the company, against whom the documentary evidence is often the strongest. The DOJ generally seeks to prosecute individuals who were in a position to stop the illegal conduct, both because of their knowledge of the cartel and their position of authority. In the past year, the DOJ has indicted two CEOs in connection with its cartel enforcement activities.Dealing with the enforcement agency
What are the practical steps for an immunity applicant or subsequent cooperating party in dealing with the enforcement agency?
The process of applying for leniency, once the decision is made to do so, moves extremely quickly. Typically, the application begins with a phone call by counsel to the DOJ, to establish the applicant’s marker as the first to file. Usually, some information regarding the nature of the illegal conduct and the evidence supporting it must be shared at this time, but merely putting in the marker does not require disclosure of full details of the scope of the cartel and the applicant’s involvement. If the agency accepts the marker, the applicant must move rapidly through an internal investigation, including collection and review of documents and witness interviews, to prepare a formal proffer of evidence to the DOJ establishing that the company satisfies the requirements to obtain leniency. Successful applicants will receive a conditional letter of amnesty, setting forth the requirements of cooperation by which the company must abide to maintain its immunity. Compliance with these requirements is strict and inflexible, necessitating complete transparency with the agency and the immediate and full disclosure of all evidence of illegal cartel activity. Failure to comply may result in the loss of immunity.
In all dealings with the enforcement agencies, complete candour and truthfulness are essential. Immunity will not be granted for illegal activity that is not disclosed. Equally important is to prevent obstruction of justice in the form of intentional or even careless destruction of documents or other evidence. Penalties for obstruction of justice are severe, sometimes exceeding those of the underlying crime itself, and may be pursued independent of or parallel to penalties for the initial antitrust violation.
Law stated dateCorrect on
Give the date on which the information above is accurate.
20 October 2020.