In January 2009, the United States Supreme Court was asked to review In re Bilski, a case which shook up the IP world last October when the court adopted a "machine-or-transformation" test as the "definitive test" for process patents. In Bilski, the Federal Circuit rejected the patent application for a process of hedging against changes in energy costs, holding, in essence, that abstract processes (or "methods") are not patentable. The court held that the only patentable processes were those linked to machines, or that transformed an article "into a different state or thing." Although the Bilski decision involved a business method claim, its application could affect all method claims, including those in the computer science or biotech industries. The petitioners in Bilski claimed that if the Supreme Court does not overturn the case, it could discourage investment in both industries and create roadblocks to research and development. If four justices vote to grant the petition for certiorari, the Supreme Court will consider Bilski on its merits.