Borrowing against artTypes of security interest
In your jurisdiction what is the usual type of security interest taken against art, antiques and collectibles?
The usual type of security interest taken against art, antiques and collectibles is the pledge, which is an agreement by which the pledger gives to a creditor the right to be paid in preference to his or her other creditors out of a corporeal movable asset or a set of corporeal movable assets, present or future (article 2333, Civil Code). A pledge is perfected by a written document that contains the description of the debt secured, the quantity of assets pledged, and their kind or nature. It may be with or without dispossession. The pledge without dispossession confers a fictitious lien to the lender insofar as the collateral is not handed over by the borrower to the lender.Consumer loans
If the borrower borrowing against art assets in your jurisdiction qualifies as a consumer, does the loan automatically qualify as a consumer loan, and are there any exemptions allowing the lender to make a non-consumer loan to a private borrower?
French law is silent on this issue.
There is only one type of credit institution, the Crédit Municipal, which may grant loans secured against art, antiques or collectibles. The Crédit Municipal has a monopoly over pledged loans.Register of security interests
Is there a public register where security interests over art, antiques or collectibles can be registered? What is the effect of registration? Is the security interest registered against the borrower or the art?
There is no specific public register where security interests over art, antiques or collectibles are registered. However, the pledge without dispossession must be published on a registry held at the commercial court register in order to be enforceable against third parties.Non-possessory security interests
Can the lender against art collateral perfect its security interest without taking physical possession of the art?
Yes. See answer 18.Sale of collateral on default
If the borrower defaults on the loan, may the lender sell the collateral under the loan agreement, or must the lender seek permission from the courts?
French law makes a distinction between civil and commercial pledges based on the civil or commercial nature of the debt that is secured. If the pledge is civil, the lender is not allowed to sell the collateral under the loan agreement without the prior permission of the courts. However, if the pledge is commercial, the lender may sell the collateral without seeking permission from the courts eight days after sending a simple notice to the defaulting borrower.
In the event of a pledged loan, the Crédit Municipal sells the art, antiques or collectibles used as collateral at auctions that are organised by the institution.Ranking of creditors
Does the lender with a valid and perfected first-priority security interest over the art collateral take precedence over all other creditors?
In general, a creditor with a valid and perfected first-priority security interest takes precedence over creditors with no security interest. Generally, the privilege of the tax authority and of employees ranks higher than a credit, even with a first-priority security interest.