On October 7, the United Nations concluded seven days of informal climate change meeting in Panama with officials declaring progress on technical, but not political issues. These meetings are a precursor to the November 28 – December 9 17th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to take place in Durban, South Africa. The signatory nations are scrambling to sign an accord to replace the Kyoto Protocols, which expire at the end of 2012. The Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action and the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol sought to the lay the groundwork on developed country mitigation targets, verification schemes, and legal and financial issues.