The U.S. Supreme Court held that the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) does not permit courts to invalidate a contractual waiver of class arbitration on the ground that the plaintiff’s cost of individually arbitrating a federal statutory claim exceeds the potential recovery. Am. Express Co. v. Italian Colors Rest., 133 S. Ct. 2304 (2013) (No. 12-133). The case involved merchants who accept credit cards and who sued the credit card company for alleged antitrust violations. The Court held that, in accordance with their arbitration agreements, the merchants were required to arbitrate their claims individually, even though the cost of individual arbitration of their claims may exceed their potential individual recovery and could prevent them from effectively vindicating their claims.