Three bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress that address the issue of interchange fees — fees that cover the processing costs from a customer's bank to a merchant's bank during a credit card transaction. Regulating interchange fees remains a top priority for the retail industry. The bills introduced by Judiciary Chairman Conyers (D-MI) and Senator Durbin (D-IL) are similar in their approach to interchange fees — allowing merchants to negotiate jointly with credit card companies, providing them with greater leverage. The third bill, introduced by Rep. Welch (D-VT), would simply prohibit the objectionable practices of charging different rates for different cards. Whether the issue is addressed this Congress remains to be seen. The Federal Reserve Board on July 15, 2009, issued the first new regulation restricting credit card rate increases under the new "CARD Act" passed by Congress in May.