On October 19, 2010, the Ontario Government passed Bill 65, the new Not-for-Profit Corporations Act, 2010 (the NFPCA). The stated purpose of the NFPCA is to modernize the legal framework for Ontario’s 46,000 provincially incorporated not-for-profit corporations (NFPs). The new legislation follows the federal Not-for-profit Corporations Act which received Royal Assent in June 2009 (not yet proclaimed in force) and which made similar reforms to the legislative scheme applicable to federally incorporated not-for-profit corporations.

The new Not-for-Profit Corporation Act, 2010 takes effect on a date to be named by proclamation. Once the Act is proclaimed, it will remove NFPs from the ambit of the present Ontario Corporations Act (the OCA). The NFPCA will affect every existing NFP in Ontario. Directors, officers, and executives should start thinking now about what actions they will need to take to ensure that their organization’s governance structure and documents comply with the new legal framework.

This article provides a short synopsis of some of the main features of the NFPCA that may be of interest to an existing Ontario NFP and its directors, officers, and executives.


1 Continuing under the NFPCA

If and when the NFPCA receives the approval of the Legislature and is proclaimed in force, NFPs currently incorporated under the OCA will have three years to file articles of amendment to amend their letters patent, supplementary letters patent, by-laws, or special resolutions to bring them into conformity with the NFPCA. If no such action is taken after three years, the necessary amendments will be deemed to have been made.

Failure to act and letting amendments be deemed to have been made will inevitably lead to ambiguity and uncertainty. The resulting questions, issues, and confusion may create more headaches and work than if articles of amendment had been filed properly within the three year window. Ontario NFPs would be wise to undertake a proactive governance review to assess whether their corporate governance documents and practices need to be updated or changed in anticipation of the NFPCA coming into effect.

2 Commercial activities are now specifically permitted & the ultra vires doctrine has been abolished

Currently, a NFP is limited to acting within the “objects” set out in the corporation’s letters patent. Actions outside of these boundaries may be found to be ultra vires by the courts and declared null and void.

Under the NFPCA, NFPs will still be required to set out “purposes” in their articles of incorporation. Corporations will be permitted to have any purpose that is within the province’s legislative authority. If any of the purposes are commercial in nature the articles must provide that these purposes are to advance or support the corporation’s non-profit purposes.

Additionally, under the NFPCA, a corporation’s actions will no longer be declared invalid (i.e. ultra vires) simply because they are contrary to the NFPCA or the corporation’s articles or by-laws. For example, if a corporation enters into a transaction that is contrary to the corporation’s articles, the transaction will no longer be declared invalid simply because it was contrary to the articles.

3 Public benefit corporations

The NFPCA differentiates between public benefit corporations and non-public benefit corporations. A public benefit corporation is defined as (a) a charitable corporation (a corporation incorporated for relief of poverty, advancement of education, religion or other charitable purpose) or (b) a non-charitable corporation that receives more than $10,000 in a financial year either as donations/gifts from persons who are not members, directors, officers, or employees of the corporation, or as grants or similar forms of financial assistance from the federal government or a provincial or municipal government or an agency of any such government. As explained below, public benefit corporations are treated differently with regards to, for example, audit requirements.

A non-public benefit corporation is any corporation that is not a public benefit corporation.

4 More flexibility has been provided to directors and members when planning their meetings

Under the OCA, directors may meet at any place in or outside of Ontario (if allowed in the by-laws) and may meet electronically. Members, on the other hand, are restricted to holding meetings within Ontario (unless stated otherwise in the letters patent) and must do so in person. Members may appoint proxies; directors may not.

Under the NFPCA, both directors, and members will be able to meet outside of Ontario and may meet by teleconference or electronically (unless stated otherwise in the articles or by-laws). Committees of directors may also meet by teleconference or electronically and unanimous written resolution in lieu of a committee meeting will be permitted. However, directors will still be prohibited from appointing proxies to attend meetings in their stead.

5 Directors: New specifics

Currently, an Ontario NFP must have at least three directors and must provide for a fixed number of directors in its by-laws. Directors may be elected for terms of up to five years but at least three directors’ terms must expire each year. Every director must be a member. Members may remove directors by special resolution (i.e. a 2/3 vote).

Under the NFPCA:

  • a corporation must continue to have at least three directors but may provide in its articles for a set number of directors or a minimum and maximum number of directors  
  • where a range of directors (minimum and maximum is permitted) the directors may be authorized by the members to “fix” the number of directors from time to time  
  • directors may not hold office for a term longer than four years  
  • not all directors need be elected for the same term and there is no requirement that there be an election each year  
  • the directors need not be members of the corporation, unless the by-laws so require;  
  • directors may be removed by ordinary resolution of the members (i.e. a majority vote)  
  • by-laws may provide for ex-officio directors and ex-officio members  
  • not more than one-third of the directors of a public benefit corporation may be employees of the corporation or of any of its affiliates.  

6 Protections for directors and officers

The NFPCA sets out directors’ and officers’ liabilities, as well as the standard of care to which directors and officers will be held accountable. This objective standard of care mirrors the standard of care set out in modern corporate statutes across Canada – to act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the corporation and to exercise the care, diligence and skill that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances. Directors are given a reasonable diligence defence and both directors and officers and former directors and officers are entitled to be indemnified by the corporation so long as the individual acted honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the corporation and had reasonable grounds for believing that his or her conduct was lawful.  

7 Enhanced rights for members

Under the NFPCA, the rights of dissenting members of a non-public benefit corporation are quite broad. For example, if a corporation resolves to amend its articles to add, remove, or change the activities that the corporation may carry on or the powers that the corporation may exercise, a member entitled to vote may dissent. If such resolution passes, the dissenting member will be entitled to be paid by the corporation the fair value of the membership interest, including any capital contribution, held by the member.

Additionally, a member entitled to vote may initiate proposals (a) to make, amend or repeal a by-law; (b) regarding any matter that is significantly related to the activities or affairs of the Corporation; or (c) to amend the articles to make certain fundamental changes. Such proposals will be required to be placed before a members’ meeting. A proposal may also include nominations for the election of directors if such proposal is signed by not less than 5% of the members entitled to vote or of a class of members entitled to vote.

Under the NFPCA, the rights of non-voting members are also expanded. If a NFP is to have more than one group or class of members, the articles must provide for such multiple groups or classes and must provide at least one class or group with the right to vote. Otherwise, each member of each class or group will be entitled to one vote. Even if the articles specify that the members of a class or group of members are not entitled to vote, such members will nevertheless be entitled to vote on certain resolutions that affect the rights or conditions of that class or group of members or another class or group of members.

When contemplating filing articles of amendment, a NFP should therefore consider whether to add specific language to its articles limiting the rights of certain classes or groups of members, including the right to vote. The NFPCA sets out other standard rules regarding members that may also be changed by a corporation if set out in its articles. For example:

  • A membership is transferable only to the corporation unless stated otherwise in the articles or by-laws  
  • A non-public benefit corporation may distribute the fair value of a membership to a member upon termination of that member’s membership, unless stated otherwise in the articles or by-laws.  

8 Appointing an auditor and conducting audits

Currently, the members of an Ontario NFP must appoint an auditor annually and such auditor must conduct annual audits. A limited exemption from this requirement is available for NFPs with income of less than $10,000 and the consent of all members.

Under the NFPCA, most corporations will have to annually appoint either an auditor or a person to conduct a review engagement. However, recognizing that annual audits or review engagements may be financially onerous, the proposed legislation provides exemptions from such requirements for corporations with a certain annual revenue and member approval.

A public benefit corporation may pass an extraordinary resolution (requiring at least 80% membership approval) to (a) have a review engagement instead of an audit of a particular financial year if the corporation had an annual revenue in that financial year of more than $100,000 (or such other prescribed amount) and less than $500,000 (or such other prescribed amount); or (b) not appoint an auditor and not have an audit or review engagement of a particular financial year if the corporation had an annual revenue in that financial year of $100,000 or less (or such other prescribed amount).

A non-public benefit corporation may pass an extraordinary resolution to (a) have a review engagement instead of an audit of a particular financial year if the corporation had an annual revenue in that financial year of more than $500,000 (or such other prescribed amount); or (b) not appoint an auditor and not have an audit or review engagement of a particular financial year if the corporation had an annual revenue in that financial year of $500,000 or less (or such other prescribed amount).

9 Investigations

The NFPCA provides the Superior Court of Justice with the authority to order an investigation of a corporation or any of its affiliates when allegations of misconduct are brought by a member or creditor of the corporation. At the conclusion of an investigation, the investigator appointed by the Court must give a report to the Director who, unless ordered otherwise by the Court, will make the report available for public inspection.

10 Incorporating under the NFPCA

The Minister of Government Services currently has the discretion to refuse a request for incorporation as an Ontario NFP, but under the NFPCA, an organization applying for incorporation may do so as “as of right”; in other words, so long as articles of incorporation and other required documents and fees are submitted correctly, an organization will be incorporated under the NFPCA.

If a by-law is not passed by a corporation within 60 days of the date of incorporation under the NFPCA, the corporation will be deemed to have passed the standard organizational by-law approved by the Director. A corporation will be able to amend, repeal, or replace such standard by-law at any time.


The new Not-for-Profit Corporation Act, 2010 will finally give Ontario not-for-profit corporations their own corporate legislation. At this time, executives, directors, and officers should view the legislation as an incentive to start thinking about what changes may need to be made to ensure that their corporation’s documents conform with the NFPCA and whether their organization’s governance arrangements need to be updated and improved.