The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit clarified in United States v. Fair that any restitution order under the Mandatory Victim Restitution Act (MVRA) must be tied to the actual loss to the victim and not to the intended loss or the perpetrator's actual gain. In the case, the defendant had pleaded guilty to copyright infringement for selling pirated copies of Adobe Systems' software on eBay for a hefty six-figure profit. The sentencing court ordered him to pay restitution in that amount, reasoning Adobe "has the right to be restored to the revenue it lost [in] its right to collect on actual sales that were made." The appeals court reversed, noting that the MVRA's authorization of restitution is "limited to the actual, provable loss suffered by the victim and caused by the offense conduct." Anything more would be "punitive in nature and thus fall outside the scope of the MVRA."