The Minister of Economic Affairs has informed the Second Chamber about alternative forms of financing. Examples are: credit unions, crowd funding, SME bonds, factoring, leasing and financing by private investors. The Dutch government intends to promote these forms of financing and remove any regulatory obstacles. The Minister has stated that the AFM has already issued either licences to a number of crowd funding organisations, or certificates stating that their activities fit within the current legislative framework. The AFM, DNB and the Ministry of Finance are also taking part in a survey on developments in the area of crowd funding. The AFM and DNB have also looked at the structure of credit unions. A structure involving "perpetual certificates of deposit" is permitted, according to the supervisors.