The Girl Scouts of the United States of America is the national Girl Scouts organization. It charters local councils, authorizing them to use the "Girl Scout" mark and sell Girl Scout cookies. One of those councils is the Manitou Counsel in eastern Wisconsin. Several years ago, the national organization decided to reduce the number of local councils. Manitou was one of the councils that would disappear under the reorganization. Manitou brought suit under the Wisconsin Fair Dealership Law. It obtained a preliminary injunction stopping the restructuring. However, on the merits, Judge Stadtmueller (E.D. Wis.) granted summary judgment to the national organization, concluding that applying the Wisconsin law to the national organization would violate their First Amendment freedom of expression rights. Manitou appeals.

In their opinion, Judges Posner, Kanne, and Tinder affirmed in part, reversed in part, and remanded. The Court rejected the First Amendment argument. Although the national organization's activities do include protected expression, that does not mean they are exempt from state laws that have a remote, at worst, impact on that expression. The national organization claims that its First of Amendment protection comes from its attempts to reorganize its structure to become more racially and ethnically diverse. The Court noted that there was actually no evidence in the record connecting diversity with the reorganization. Without that connection, the argument fails. The Court turned to the alternative argument, rejected by the district court, that the national organization's activities do not violate the Wisconsin Fair Dealership Law. The Court first refused to recognize a statutory exemption for non-profits. Next, the Court concluded that the statute required "good cause" to eliminate the council entirely, even though the national organization had the right to alter territory boundaries. They Court wrestled with a definition of "good cause" but ultimately found no need to resolve it. It concluded that: a) the national organization abandoned its argument that business reasons provided the good cause, and b) it found its argument that its expressive activity provided good cause unsupported by the record. The Court also affirmed the dismissal of the common law claims and ordered the reinstatement of the injunction.