In California, a husband and wife team of union employees were sentenced in May to prison terms for embezzling from the United Plumbers and Pipe Fitters Local 228. Robert Carr, formerly the financial secretary and business manager, was sentenced to 30 months in prison, and his wife, Theresa Ann Carr, an employee of the Local, was sentenced to 3 months. Each was convicted of three felony counts for offenses spanning nine years. Their methods included unauthorized salary advances and bonuses; false reimbursement requests; and improper use of credit cards and union checks to pay for personal items such as sporting goods, fishing equipment, clothes, jewelry, meals, lodging and concert tickets. They have been ordered to make $120,000 in restitution.

Meanwhile, in Jersey City, two union officials were convicted of unlawfully paying themselves salary increases and bonuses in the amount of $375,000 from the International Union of Allied Novelty and Production Workers Local 148. Stephen Arena, president of the local, and David Caivano, the local's secretary-treasurer, paid themselves and then concealed the transactions from the executive board. They then falsified executive board meeting minutes to make it appear as though the transactions had been approved. The two apparently took advantage of the fact that the executive board was not fully functioning and did not exercise oversight. Arena was sentenced to six months in prison and six months of house arrest, and fined $5,000. (He had already made restitution of $193,000.) Caivano was sentenced to three years of probation and ordered to make $110,000 in restitution. The two had claimed the payments were authorized by the Local's bylaws, but each pleaded guilty.