Large-scale, targeted cyber attacks on information systems are evolving and becoming more prevalent and more successful in their aims to infiltrate, disrupt and damage systems and data. On 30 September 2010, the European Commission proposed new measures to replace and improve the existing rules on attacks against information systems contained in a 2005 Council Framework Decision.

One of the new measures to help combat this evolved cyber threat is to introduce a new European Directive that allows the perpetrators of these large-scale cyber attacks, as well as the producers of the malicious software used to carry out the attacks, to be prosecuted and provides for increases in the associated criminal sanctions. The other measure is a new European Regulation to bolster the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA), established in 2004, to help improve network and information security across EU Member States.

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