Control Components International (CCI), a California valve company, and certain former CCI personnel, were charged with making improper payments to both public and private sector individuals in China, Korea, and the UAE. Three individuals who pleaded guilty and cooperated with the Department of Justice in the FCPA prosecution of their former employer, were sentenced in March 2013. The former Finance Director and former Director of Worldwide Sales each received sentences of probation, while the former Vice President received time served (11 months) without probation, so that he could return to his native Italy. Each of the three cooperated against other former high-level executives of the company who ultimately pleaded guilty after initially contesting their charges: the former Head of Worldwide Sales received a 13-month sentence, served as home confinement due to his age and poor health; the former Vice President for Worldwide Sales received a four-month prison sentence. Other individual cooperators in the case received short confinement sentences (four months in prison plus home confinement). Although these modest sentences reflected the value of their cooperation, each was required to plead guilty to a federal crime, which has serious repercussions for them. See Sentencing Memorandum, United States v. Morlok, No. SACR 09-00005, (C.D. Cal. Mar. 11, 2013); Sentencing Memorandum, United States v. Covino, No. SACR 08-00336 (C.D. Cal. Mar. 11, 2013); Sentencing Memorandum,United States v. Ricotti, No. SACR 09-00077 (C.D. Cal. Mar. 18, 2013).