Industrialised countries met in Vienna in August to discuss the international regime to combat climate change after 2012 when the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws to an end. The Kyoto Protocol required signatory states to reduce emissions by five per cent of their 1990 levels. The UN conference agreed that the post-Kyoto regime should reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25 to 40 per cent of 1990 levels by 2020. The European Union views this commitment as a starting point and is encouraging an even greater commitment. China, however is refusing to commit to specific emissions reductions. The G8, China, Brazil and India have all committed to work towards an agreement for a major United Nations conference on climate change in December 2007.