On April 2, two lawsuits were filed and eventually consolidated in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit regarding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air toxic standards for area source boilers final rule. The rule limits mercury and carbon monoxide emissions, and is expected to cost boiler owners $490 million annually to comply. Plaintiffs are the Louisiana Environmental Action Network, the American Chemistry Council, the American Forest and Paper Association, the American Wood Council, the Clean Air Council, the Corn Refiners Association, the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, the Environmental Integrity Project, the National Association of Manufacturers, the Partnership for Policy Integrity, the Rubber Manufacturers Association, the Sierra Club, the Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.