The Supreme Court of the United States granted review in four cases this morning (two of which were consolidated):
CSX Transportation, Inc. v. McBride, No. 10-235: The Federal Employers’ Liability Act authorizes a railroad employee to recover for a workplace injury "resulting in whole or in part from the negligence" of the railroad, 45 U.S.C. § 51, with damages reduced in proportion to any contributory negligence by the employee. The question presented is whether FELA requires proof of proximate causation, or some other standard.
Arizona Free Enterprise v. Bennett, No. 10-238, and McComish v. Bennett, No. 10-239: Arizona’s Citizens Clean Elections Act provides extra subsidies in the form of "matching funds" to publicly financed candidates who are outspent by independent expenditure groups and privately financed candidates. Are such subsidies forbidden by the First and Fourteenth Amendments?
Microsoft Corp. v. i4i Limited Partnership, No. 10-290: Whether a defense of patent invalidity must be proved by clear and convincing evidence.