On February 21, 2007, the French Conseil de la Concurrence (Competition Council) found that the practice whereby the l'Union française des orthoprothésistes (UFOP), a trade association of manufacturers of orthoprostheses, induced its members to apply similar tariff structures created efficiencies and therefore was not caught by French competition rules. In France, orthoprostheses for non-hospitalized patients are refunded by French Social Security if they are registered on a specific list (LPPR). Prices for apparatus on that list are regulated by the French State. Prices for apparatus not registered on the list (e.g, new models) are theoretically free and their reimbursement is subject to an agreement on a case-by-case basis between the French Social Security authorities and the orthoprostheses manufacturers. The UFOP advised its members to apply similar tariff structures as the ones applied by the State for registered apparatus to non registered apparatus. Although the recommendation amounted to a practice not to depart from a recommended price, the French Competition Council considered that the UFOP recommendation created efficiencies to the benefit of consumers since it avoided the imposition of overly high prices for patients and limited the risk that the French Social Security authorities would refuse reimbursement. In contrast, recommendations whereby the UFOP induced its members not to grant rebates for the supply of orthoprostheses to hospitals was considered contrary to the French competition rules.