On 18 and 19 September 2017, representatives of the WP29 participated in the first joint review conducted by the European Commission (EC) to assess the robustness of the EU – U.S. Privacy Shield adequacy decision (Privacy Shield). Although the WP29 recognizes the progress of the Privacy Shield in comparison with the invalidated Safe Harbor decision, the WP29 has a number significant concerns (in particular more about the cooperation between the privacy enforcers i.e. the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Federal Trade Commision, and the EU Data Protection Authorities, and the appointment of an independent Privacy Shield Ombudsperson). The WP29 expects their recommendations to be addressed during the second joint review, but in any case prior to 25 May 2018. In case no remedy is brought within this time frame, the WP29 has announced its intention to take appropriate action, including bringing the Privacy Shield to national courts in order to make a reference to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) for a preliminary ruling. The full text of the ‘EU – U.S. Privacy Shield – First annual Joint Review’ can be read here.