Andrew Osborne Tom McEvoy April 19 2023 Key considerations for clawing back immigration fees from employees Lewis Silkin LLP | Employment & Immigration - United Kingdom Andrew Osborne, Tom McEvoy Employment & Immigration IntroductionEmployer support with high cost of visa sponsorshipKey considerationsIntroductionBusinesses increasingly look to protect their investment in sponsored workers with "clawback" agreements, seeking to recoup immigration fees from the employee if employment terminates. With sponsorship on the rise post-Brexit, businesses are asking questions about how to create an effective clawback agreement.This article explores the key considerations and risks involved in these arrangements.Employer support with high cost of visa sponsorship The average cost of sponsoring a skilled worker for five years can exceed £10,000. Most of the fees incurred are government fees including:a visa application fee;a fee to assign a certificate of sponsorship;an immigration skills charge;an immigration health surcharge;a fee for attending an appointment; anda priority processing fee.In most cases, the majority of these costs are borne by the employer. Sponsoring an employee therefore entails a significant up-front investment. As a result, some businesses are hesitant to offer jobs to candidates who require sponsorship, instead preferring to recruit from the settled labour market. Such a policy is supported by the government in its promotional material for employers, which explicitly wants to "encourage employers to first consider domestic recruitment options within the UK". However, it poses the potential risk of a spurned candidate bringing an employment tribunal claim for race discrimination claim in an employment tribunal. For further details, see "Employment law and immigration law: two awkward siblings".As employers are continuing to struggle with labour shortages and skills gaps post-Brexit, the sponsorship of overseas talent is prevalent. One method to protect an employer's investment in a sponsored employee is to require sponsored employees to agree to repay the immigration fees associated with their application if their employment terminates. This is commonly referred to as a "clawback" agreement. These arrangements are increasingly common but are not without some risk. Careful thought and drafting are essential.Key considerationsEmployment contract or side letter?Is the clawback obligation going to be embedded as a clause in the employment contract itself, or is it going to sit in a separate side letter that will be issued to the employee? If the latter, the employee's countersignature will be needed to evidence their consent to the agreement. And whichever form it takes, it must be clear that the employer has the authority to make a deduction from the employee's final salary payment for these costs.Is it enforceable?It is possible that an employee will seek to argue that a repayment obligation is either a penalty or a restraint of trade, rendering the obligation unenforceable and invalid. Whether this argument would be successful remains untested in law. Repayment obligations in the (slightly different) context of training costs are enforceable, provided that they are proportionate to the loss suffered by the employer. In any event, the obligation may still have some value to the employer as a deterrent.Is it proportionate?The best way to mitigate against an argument that a repayment clause is unenforceable is to carefully tailor the obligation so that it is proportionate. This could include:incorporating a "sunset" provision, so that the obligation to repay the fees extinguishes after a particular period;"tapering" the obligation, so that the amount of the fees that needs to be repaid incrementally decreases over time;excluding some elements of the immigration fees. Immigration skills charge, for one, must be excluded (Home Office guidance states that the employer's sponsor licence may be revoked if the charge is passed on to the sponsored employee). It is best practice to exclude the certificate of sponsorship fee (at £199, it is relatively low compared to the value that the employer will get from the sponsored employee). Further, it may be considered unreasonable to include the professional fees that were incurred in applying for the visa, as this is usually a commercial agreement between the employer and its professional advisers; andexcluding certain reasons for termination, such as redundancy or where the employer is in fundamental breach of contract and the employee resigns as a result.Is it discriminatory?Employers should be mindful of the risk of an indirect race discrimination claim being brought in respect of a repayment obligation. This would be on the basis that the repayment requirement is likely to have a worse impact on non-British nationals. Indirect discrimination can, however, potentially be justified if there is a good reason for it. The specific point has not yet been tested in the tribunals, but employers should be prepared to explain why the repayment clause is both necessary and proportionate. It is also arguable that a lengthy repayment provision indirectly discriminates against women, older or disabled employees because these groups may be less likely to be able to remain in stable employment and so may have shorter lengths of service. In addition, employers should be wary about imposing repayment obligations on certain sponsored employees but not others, as this raises risks of direct discrimination between different groups.For further information on this topic please contact Andrew Osborne or Tom McEvoy at Lewis Silkin by telephone (+44 20 7074 8000) or email ([email protected] or [email protected]). The Lewis Silkin website can be accessed at www.lewissilkin.com.