On August 7, 2014, the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Appellate Body upheld a March 2014 dispute settlement panel decision that China's imposition of export duties on tungsten, molybdenum, and other rare earth elements breached WTO rules. This decision represented an important victory for the United States and its partners against Chinese policies, which according to the United States "had forced American manufacturers to pay as much as 300 percent more than what their Chinese competitors pay for the same materials." As of May 1, 2015, the Chinese Government has announced that it has eliminated the aforementioned export duties that were inconsistent with WTO rules. U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman expressed enthusiasm for the positive outcome, stating that this result confirms "that vigorous trade enforcement can and does produce real results." The United States also expressed concern, however, over licensing requirements imposed by Beijing on the export of rare earths, which could be construed as export restrictions. The United States will continue to monitor China's commitment to its WTO obligations.