The Supreme Court of Canada has dismissed the appeal of the taxpayer and determined that the tax advisor penalty in section 163.2 of the Income Tax Act is administrative in nature.
While the majority of the Court (Rothstein, Cromwell, Moldaver and Gascon) exercised its discretion to consider the taxpayer’s constitutional arguments despite the taxpayer’s failure to provide notice of constitutional question, the Court held that the penalty under section 163.2 was not criminal in nature:
 We conclude that the proceeding under s. 163.2 is not criminal in nature and does not lead to the imposition of true penal consequences. We agree with Stratas J.A., writing for the Federal Court of Appeal, that “the assessment of a penalty under s. 163.2 is not the equivalent of being ‘charged with a [criminal] offence.’ Accordingly, none of the s. 11 rights apply in s. 163.2 proceedings”: para. 37.
 Finally, we note that even though s. 11 of the Charter is not engaged by s. 163.2 of the ITA , those against whom penalties are assessed are not left without recourse or protection. They have a full right of appeal to the Tax Court of Canada and, as the respondent pointed out in her factum, have access to other administrative remedies: R.F., at para. 99; see, e.g., ITA , s. 220(3.1) .
In a concurring opinion that dissented on the issue of the notice requirement, Justices Abella, Karakatsanis and Wagner held that the taxpayer’s failure to provide notice of constitutional question in the Tax Court or Federal Court of Appeal was fatal to her appeal.