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What is the general climate of real estate investment in your jurisdiction?
The Dubai Land Department has reported that there has been a 45% increase in the value of real estate transactions in the first quarter of 2017 compared to the first quarter of 2016, with the total value reaching more than Dh77 billion. There continue to be disputes between contractors and developers relating to construction defects, defaults and payments.
Who are the most common investors in real estate?
The main source of investors continues to be cash buyers. The introduction of mortgage caps by the UAE Central Bank has led to a suppression of bank finance, particularly for residential purchase transactions.
Are there any restrictions on foreign investment in real estate?
There is no express prohibition in the Civil Code (Federal Law 5/1985) against foreign land ownership. However, each emirate can pass its own laws to regulate property ownership.
In Dubai, UAE nationals, Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nationals and companies fully owned by these can own property anywhere in Dubai (Article 4 of Law 7/2006). Non-UAE/GCC nationals can own only freeholds, leaseholds (up to 99 years) or usufructs (up to 99 years) in designated areas in Dubai, which are listed in Regulation 3/2006 (as amended by Regulation 1/2010), or in the free zones.
Under the Dubai Land Department’s existing policies:
- a foreign company can own only a freehold, leasehold (up to 99 years) or usufruct (up to 99 years) in the designated areas in Dubai and must be registered onshore in Dubai or offshore in the Jebel Ali Free Zone and certain other free zones; and
- a fund or a trust (or an entity which is held by either of these) cannot own property anywhere in Dubai.
What structures are typically used to invest in real estate and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each (including tax implications)?
Generally, a separate special purpose limited liability vehicle is used to purchase and develop a plot. These vehicles are primarily used because they ring-fence liability to the specific special purpose vehicle.
Although Dubai is mainly a tax-free emirate, there are governmental restrictions on:
- foreign investment;
- areas where investment is permitted;
- corporate structures that can be used for investment; and
- licences required before investment can be made.
One entity can own the plot and also hold the development licence. The licence is deemed to include leasing rights. Alternatively, one entity can own the plot while another entity holds the licence. Various licences are available and each has advantages and disadvantages. The decisive criteria are:
- the plot's intended use; and
- the applicant's nationality.
Real estate investment trusts (REITs) are permitted and can purchase property in the Dubai International Financial Centre (www.difc.ae). However, REITs are not permitted elsewhere in Dubai. Therefore, REITs are not commonly used.
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