Our international licensed Shacks import most of our proprietary and other core ingredients from the United States and the European Union. If this international supply chain is interrupted, our international licensed operations could encounter supply shortages and incur higher costs.

Our international licensed Shacks import most of our proprietary ingredients from the United States and the European Union (the "EU"). For example, our proprietary blend of beef patties and/or raw materials for beef patties originate from the United States and the EU as well as Australia. In addition, our potato buns are exclusively from the United States, and other key items such as crinkle-cut fries and American cheese originate within the United States or the EU. While we have established secondary supply solutions for some of these ingredients, we have not acquired secondary supplies for all of them.

Due to the long lead time and general volatility in the supply chain, the third party logistic providers for our international licensed Shacks in the Middle East carry one to three months of inventory to allow for delays or interruptions in the supply chain. Specifically, we have had past and ongoing issues in ensuring that timely and adequate supplies reach our Middle East Shacks. In the Middle East, our licensee, Alshaya Trading Company W.L.L. ("Alshaya"), delegates the supply function to its third party logistics providers in each country in which Alshaya operates, with which we have limited and restricted communication, preventing us from exercising control or instruction over such entities. As a result, in the Middle East, Alshaya has a limited ability to achieve economies of scale and minimize production and freight costs.

The recent sanctions enacted by the Russian Federation on many imported ingredients from the United States, the EU and Australia have affected our licensee in Russia's ability to import such ingredients to our Russian Shack. As a result of the changing and uncertain nature of such sanctions, while our licensee in Russia has identified a back-up supplier, we are unable to guarantee that the licensee will be able to import our proprietary ingredients to supply this Shack. We have given our licensee in Russia approval to utilize alternative ingredients not affected by the sanctions, but there is a risk that these substitute ingredients may be inferior in taste and quality or come from suppliers that have not been vetted for food safety and quality assurance.

Our U.K. Shack faces challenges in obtaining potato buns and custard, which originate from our U.S. suppliers. While these ingredients have no trade restrictions, they must be shipped from the United States, which poses an ongoing risk of delay in supply deliveries.

Our Turkish Shacks currently import many key ingredients from both the EU and the United States. As is common in many developing markets, regulations are always subject to change which could potentially give rise to import risks should current importation legislation change. We are currently working on local Turkish alternatives to alleviate these risks in the future.

If our international licensed Shacks are unable to obtain our proprietary ingredients in the necessary amounts in a timely fashion as a result of logistics issues, sanctions or other challenges, it could harm its business and adversely affect the licensing fees we receive from Alshaya, adversely impacting our business and results of operations.