The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA’s) Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA Panel) has issued two scientific opinions deriving dietary reference values (DRVs) for iron and copper. After estimating whole-body iron losses and absorption values for men and women, the panel set the population reference intake (PRI) at 11 mg/ day for men and postmenopausal women; infants ages 7 to 11 months; children ages 7 to 11 years; and boys ages 12 to 17 years. It also established PRIs of 16 mg/day for premenopausal women; 13 mg/day for girls ages 12 to 17 years; and 7 mg/day in children ages 1 to 6 years.

Due to the absence of biomarkers indicating copper status as well as limited data, the NDA Panel only defined adequate intakes (AIs) “based on mean observed intakes in several European Union (EU) countries, given that there is no evidence of overt copper deficiency in the European population.” It has proposed the following AIs for copper: (i) 1.6 mg/day for men; (ii) 1.5 mg/day for pregnant and lactating women; (iii) 1.3 mg/ day for women; (iv) 0.4 mg/day for infants ages 7 to 11 months; (v) 0.7 mg/day for children ages 1 to 3 years; (vi) 1 mg/day for children ages 3 to 10 years; and (vii) 1.1 mg/day and 1.3 mg/day for girls and boys ages 10 to 18 years, respectively.