On 27 May 2015 the Queen unveiled the Government’s legislative programme for the new Parliament, the first exclusively Conservative programme for nearly 20 years. This included a number of employment-law reforms, particularly in the fields of industrial action and immigration, none of which come as a surprise having been heavily trailed before and since the election.
The Trade Unions Bill will create more barriers for trade unions wishing to call a strike. First, more than 50% of a union’s eligible members must vote in order for the ballot to be valid. Second, if the strike affects “essential public services” at least 40% of those entitled to vote must be in favour of the strike. The Bill will also lift the ban on the use of agency staff to provide cover when strike action takes place. There is to be a new time limit on the ballot for industrial action and a promise to tackle intimidation of non-striking workers, although it is unclear how this would be done. The Government said the point of the bill was to “ensure that disruption to essential public services has a democratic mandate”. The Bill would also force trade union members to opt in if they want to pay a political levy.
An attempt to fulfil a Conservative manifesto promise to reduce regulation on small businesses, the Enterprise Bill would cap redundancy pay to public sector workers. The new Business Secretary Sajid Javid has said that the Bill also intends to “cut red tape for business by at least £10 billion over the next five years.” It is not clear precisely what red tape will be targeted, but the CBI is calling for further deregulation in the field of employment. Savid Javid has said, however, that he will not be going back to the controversial Beecroft proposals for no fault dismissals.
The Immigration Bill will create a new enforcement agency to tackle the worst cases of exploitation as well as creating an offence of illegal working and enabling wages to be seized as the proceeds of crime. Ministers promise to consult on the introduction of a new visa levy on businesses that recruit overseas labour to fund extra apprenticeships for British and EU workers.
More profound changes may ultimately result from the EU Referendum Bill which will set in law an in-out vote as to whether the UK should remain in the EU before the end of 2017. David Cameron has indicated that he is not necessarily looking for a EU exit, but continued EU membership is dependent on the UK negotiating more acceptable terms including reforms to support business growth and job creation and restrict EU migrants claiming benefits in the UK. An EU exit would provide the Government with more flexibility to make changes to employment laws such as TUPE and the Agency Worker Regulations.
Notably, the Queen’s Speech stopped short of a legislative plan to scrap the Human Rights Act, but it did confirm government plans to present proposals for reform. Human rights as set out in the European Convention have impacted the employment relationship; particularly the right to a private and family life; to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; to freedom of expression; to freedom of assembly and association; and the right not to be discriminated against. At this stage it is unclear how repeal of the Human Rights Act might impact on employment rights.
The day before the Queen’s speech, other employment law changes came into effect with little fanfare: Exclusivity clauses in zero hours contracts became unlawful as from 26 May. This change, which was a key feature of the employment law reforms contained in the Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015, came into force 2 months after the Act was passed.
Under the new law, any clause in a zero hours contract which prohibits a worker from “doing work or performing services” under another contract, or prohibits him or her from doing so “without the employer’s consent”, will now be unenforceable by the employer. The new law has, however, been described as toothless by some commentators as a worker cannot currently claim detriment as a result of an employer trying to enforce such a clause. However, there is further scope under the Act for the Government to add this protection for zero hours workers. Draft rules, which were attached to the coalition government’s response to its public consultation on the exclusivity ban earlier this year, have not yet been brought into force. These included a new right not to suffer any detriment should the workers take a job under other contracts and an extension of the scope of the exclusivity ban to workers on very low weekly pay/working hours. Until these anti-avoidance measures are in place, the ban will not create any meaningful protection for zero hours workers. However, it is likely to be only be a matter of time before this protection is introduced. Employers who operate zero hours contracts may wish to remove any offending clauses from their contracts in anticipation of this.
The government, in its response to the consultation on the new law, pledged to review and improve existing guidance available to employers and workers regarding zero hours contracts. Such guidance would help to correct the confusion which often surrounds the rights of zero hours workers, particularly in relation to working time and holiday pay.
The following employment-related provisions also came into force on 26 May:
- Increase in the penalty which can be imposed on an employer who pays less than the National Minimum Wage; the maximum penalty is now £20,000 per worker, rather per employer; and
- Provision giving power for the Secretary of State to make regulations to prevent discrimination by NHS employers against job applicants on the grounds that they appear to be NHS whistleblowers.