The Belgian Constitutional Court struck down the nation’s 2013 law implementing the 2006 EU Data Retention Directive, ruling that it violated privacy rights under the Belgian constitution.  The Belgian law required telecommunications and Internet service providers to retain user data and personal information for a minimum of 12 months.  The European Court of Justice had nullified the Directive in April 2014 for violating the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, prompting a number of other member states ‒ including Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Netherlands ‒ to invalidate their own data retention laws.  But other European countries, including the UK and Sweden, have maintained or passed new data retention laws.