The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit ruled, in U.S. v. Graham, that historic cell-site location information collected by the government is protected by the Fourth Amendment and the government must therefore procure a warrant to obtain it from a cell carrier.  Graham follows on the heels of a similar decision, In Re: Application for Telephone Information Needed for a Criminal Investigation,by Lucy Koh, a U.S. District Judge in San Jose.  These rulings have major privacy implications for cell-service carriers and the public, and are the latest installments in a series of conflicting rulings over warrantless searches of cell-phone location data.