On September 8, 2016, the Eighth Circuit, in Braitberg v. Charter Communications, Inc., held that a defendant's violation of a statute by retaining personal information does not constitute a cognizable injury for the purpose of bringing suit in federal court, absent the defendant's actual disclosure of the retained information to a third party. In Braitberg, the plaintiff brought a putative class action against Charter Communications alleging that it violated the Cable Communications Policy Act by retaining personal information of its customers, even after they cancelled their cable services. The district court dismissed the case in a one-page order without stating its reasoning. On appeal, the Eighth Circuit affirmed the district court's dismissal, relying on the Supreme Court's recent case, Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins, which held that a plaintiff must suffer a concrete and particularized injury in order to bring a suit in federal court, and that allegations of bare procedural violations, without actual injury, do not satisfy the concreteness requirement.