A Dutch court struck down the Netherlands’ data retention law, which requires telecommunications companies to collect and store telephony data on fixed or mobile networks for 12 months, and data related to Internet access and email for 6 months.  The district court of the Hague found that the law fails to establish clear rules and limits on the government’s ability to access and use the data, thereby infringing on citizens’ privacy and personal data protection rights beyond the extent necessary to fulfill the law’s objective of preventing serious crime.  One day later, Bulgaria’s Constitutional Court ruled that the mandatory bulk retention of communications data under the Electronic Communications Act is unconstitutional, finding that the Act’s data retention requirements disproportionately interfere with citizens’ rights to privacy and freedom of communication.  It also held that in light of the April 2014 ruling of the European Court of Justice, the law must be invalidated under the constitutional provision that “international treaties ratified by Bulgaria (including all EU treaties and directives) “have primacy over any conflicting provision of the domestic legislation.”