“The law has long treated unenforceability of a claim (due to the expiration of the limitations period) as an affirmative defense … And we see nothing misleading or deceptive in the filing of a proof of claim that, in effect, follows the Code’s similar system.”

Midland Funding, LLC v. Johnson, (May 15, 2017).

Yesterday, the Supreme Court reversed the Eleventh Circuit’s holding in Midland Funding v. Johnson in a 5-3 split. Their decision resolves a circuit split as to whether the filing of a time barred proof of claim violates the FDCPA. For those familiar with the oral arguments in this matter, it should come as no surprise that the dissent was written by Justice Sotomayor and joined by Justices Ginsburg and Kagan. The majority opinion was authored by Justice Breyer.

Johnson in the Lower Courts

Aleida Johnson filed her Chapter 13 bankruptcy petition in 2014. Midland Funding, LLC, a debt buyer, filed a proof of claim which disclosed on its face that the claim was barred by the applicable statute of limitations, listing the date of last transaction as May 2003. Johnson sued Midland in federal court, alleging that Midland had violated sections 1692e and 1692f of the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act by filing a time barred proof of claim.

Midland moved to dismiss asserting that Johnson’s FDCPA claims were precluded by the Bankruptcy Code. The district court concluded that that the Bankruptcy Code expressly provided for the filing of a claim irrespective of whether it is time barred so long as the creditor has a right to payment that has not been extinguished by state law while the FDCPA prohibited debt collectors from doing so. The district court further concluded that the Bankruptcy Code and FDCPA were in irreconcilable conflict and that the later statute, the Bankruptcy Code, impliedly repealed the earlier statute, the FDCPA. Johnson v. Midland Funding, LLC, 528 B.R. 462, 470 (S.D. Ala. 2015). On appeal, the Eleventh Circuit reversed, holding that the Bankruptcy Code and FDCPA were not in irreconcilable conflict. Instead, “[t]he FDCPA easily lies over the top of the Code’s regime, so as to provide an additional layer of protection against a particular kind of creditor.” Johnson, 823 F.3d at 1341. The court concluded that the two statutes could be reconciled because “they provide different protections and reach different actors.” Id. at 1340. While the Bankruptcy Code allows creditors to file proofs of claim even with respect to time barred debt, it does not require that they do so and they “are not free from all consequences of filing these claims.” Id. at. 1339.

Supreme Court

The significance and divisiveness of the issues led both the petitioner and respondent to agree that the issues merited review. The parties’ consensus fast tracked the courts’ consideration of the petition and the following issues were certified for appeal in October: (a) whether the filing of an accurate proof of claim for an unextinguished time barred debt in a bankruptcy proceeding violates the FDCPA; and (b) whether the Bankruptcy Code, which governs the filing of proofs of claim in bankruptcy, precludes the application of the FDCPA to the filing of an accurate proof of claim on an unextinguished time-barred debt.

Like the majority of the circuits that had previously examined the issue, the court held that the filing of a proof of claim, which on its face indicates the limitations period has run, does not fall within the scope of the FDCPA. Specifically, the Court determined that the filing of the proof of claim did not fall within the “five relevant words” of the FDCPA: false, deceptive, misleading, unfair or unconscionable.

False, Deceptive or Misleading

In concluding that Midland’s proof of claim was not false, deceptive or misleading, the Court explored the issue of whether the Bankruptcy Code’s definition of a claim requires the claim be enforceable, as well as the respective burdens imposed upon the parties by the statute of limitations. Regarding enforceability, the Court held that the Bankruptcy Code does not contain a requirement that a claim be enforceable. In fact, the Court observed that “[t]he word enforceable does not appear in the Code’s definition of ‘claim’”. Instead, Section 101(5) (A) states that a claim is a right to payment, “whether or not such right is … fixed, contingent, … [or] disputed.” Midland Funding, LLC v. Johnson, slip op. at 4.

The Court also addressed one of the issues which troubled several justices during oral argument: reconciliation of the statute of limitations as an affirmative defense rather than as a condition precedent to filing a claim. At oral argument, Justice Kennedy posed a number of questions to Johnson’s counsel and the Department of Justice (appearing as amicus curiae) raising concerns with Johnson’s assertion that a debt collector can violate the FDCPA by filing a time barred proof of claim. Justice Kennedy’s questions seemed to reflect a two fold concern. First, that by its inherent nature, the statute of limitations is an affirmative defense and secondly, that, in a majority of states, the running of the statute of limitations does not extinguish the debt. Both Justices Kennedy and Alito seemed to share a concern with reconciling those concepts with the position of Johnson which would place an affirmative duty on the claim filer not to file the time barred proof of claim in the first place rather than upon the trustee or other interested party to object. In addressing those concerns, the Court noted that under relevant state law (Alabama), the creditor has a right to payment even after the statute of limitations has expired, meeting the definition of a claim. Additionally, the Court determined that the Bankruptcy Code’s provisions make clear that the running of a limitations period is an affirmative defense, “a defense that the debtor is to assert after a creditor makes a “claim.”

The Court went on to conclude that “[t]he law has long treated unenforceability of a claim (due to the expiration of the limitations period) as an affirmative defense … And we see nothing misleading or deceptive in the filing of a proof of claim that, in effect, follows the Code’s similar system.” Id. at 5.

Unfair or Unconscionable

Whether the filing of a proof of claim on “obviously” time barred debt is unfair or unconscionable presented a closer question. Like many of the lower courts which had examined the issue, the Court immediately noted the differences between the context of a civil suit and a Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceeding. In a Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceeding, the claims procedure makes it “considerably more likely that an effort to collect upon a stale claim … will be met with resistance, objection, and disallowance” and minimize the risk to the debtor. Id. at 7.

In its examination under the lens of unfair or unconscionable, the Court returned to its concerns with the debtor’s proposition that the initial burden is on the creditor to insure it files proofs of claim only on debts which are not time barred. The Court noted the practical issues of carving out and defining the boundaries of an exception if it were to change the simple affirmative defense approach. “Does it apply only where … a claim’s staleness appears “on [the] face” of the proof of claim? Does it apply to other affirmative defenses or only to the running of a limitations period?” Id. at 8. The Court concluded that finding the FDCPA applicable to such proofs of claim would ultimately add to the complexity of the claims process and shift the burden from the debtor to the creditor to investigate the staleness of any claim. The Court ultimately concluded that the practice of filing proofs of claim on time barred debt is neither “unfair” or “unconscionable” within the terms of the FDCPA.

Limitations on the Court’s Decision

The Court’s decision is a major win for the industry and is a continued reflection of the Court’s practical approach to claims under the FDCPA. Having said that, it is important to note that the Court’s decision is limited to claims which are otherwise accurate and on their face indicate the limitations period has run. It is important to note that the Court’s opinion does not expressly address the broader issue of whether the Bankruptcy Code precludes the application of the FDCPA. In fact, the opinion may suggest otherwise. By applying the FDCPA’s “five relevant words” to the claim at issue, the Court’s opinion suggests that the FDCPA may, under different circumstances, have some application to the claims process.