In Big 5 Sporting Goods Corp. v. Zurich American Ins. Co., et al., Case No. 13-56249 (9th Cir. Dec. 7, 2015), the Ninth Circuit, interpreting California law, held that underlying putative class action lawsuits asserting Song-Beverly Act claims alongside causes of action for invasion of privacy and negligence were not covered and did not trigger a duty to defend under CGL policies issued by Zurich and Hartford. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the decision of the Central District Court Judge Dolly Gee.
The Song-Beverly Act prohibits retailers from requesting and recording personal identification information (e.g., Zip codes) in conjunction with point-of-sale credit card transactions. Big 5 was sued in a series of underlying class action lawsuits asserting causes of action based on alleged violations of the Song-Beverly Act. Some of those complaints also asserted common law and constitutional invasion of privacy claims as well as negligence causes of action.
The policies included “Distribution of Material” exclusions which eliminated coverage for personal and advertising injury arising directly or indirectly out of any act or omission that violates or is alleged to violate any statute that prohibits or limits the sending, transmitting, communicating, distribution, etc., of material or information. Additionally, the Hartford policy included a “Right of Privacy Created by Statute” exclusion which eliminated coverage for personal and advertising injury arising out of the violation of a person’s right of privacy created by statute.
The Ninth Circuit affirmed District Court, holding that these exclusions eliminated coverage and any duty to defend the underlying suits based on the alleged violations of the Song-Beverly Act. The Court determined that the Act was undeniably a statute and that the alleged violations of the Act amounted to acts or omissions that were excluded from coverage.
Significantly, the Ninth Circuit rejected Big 5’s argument that the underlying common law and California constitutional invasion of privacy claims independently triggered a duty to defend. In doing so, the Court determined that in the context of the at-issue garden variety Song-Beverly Act complaints, such invasion of privacy claims “simply do not exist.” The Court further stated:
California does not recognize any common law or constitutional privacy right causes of action for requesting, sending, transmitting, communicating, distributing, or commercially using ZIP Codes. The only possible claim is for statutory penalties, not damages.
As support for this conclusion, the Ninth Circuit recognized that the Song-Beverly Act created a new right to protection in a consumer’s personal identification information that that did not previously exist and that the remedy for violations of the Act were specified statutory penalties. It also relied on the decision in Fogelstrom v. Lamps Plus, Inc. (2011) 195 Cal. App. 4th 986, which concluded that in the context of Song-Beverly class actions, there was no actionable invasion of privacy cause of action as the required element of a serious invasion of privacy or egregious breach of social norms was not present.
The Ninth Circuit further held that the underlying negligence causes of action did not trigger a duty to defend, stating that “[j]ust as a rose by any other name is still a rose, so a ZIP Code case under any other label remains a ZIP Code case.” The Court recognized that under California law, artful drafting and the assertion of superfluous negligence claims does not create a duty to defend where such a duty does not otherwise exist under the facts alleged.
With its decision in Big 5, the Ninth Circuit joins a growing number of Courts from across the country that have held that statutory class action lawsuits do not trigger a duty to defend under CGL policies.
The Ninth Circuit’s decision in Big 5 is not published and its citation is governed by 9th Cir. R. 36-3.