13 complaints before the ECtHR against France and its Surveillance Law In July 2015, France passed a new law that regulated intelligence activities and provided a legal framework for intelligence agencies to implement domestic surveillance programs (Law n° 2015-912 of July 24, 2015 related to intelligence). Though the French Constitutional Council validated the main parts of this legal framework (Decision n° 2015-713 DC of July 23, 2015), the law is now being challenged at the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) by various individuals and nongovernmental organizations alleging several violations of the European Convention on Human Rights (e.g., violation of client-attorney privilege, confidentiality of journalistic sources, etc.) These challenges raise issues of State surveillance recently addressed by the ECtHR which condemned Hungary in January (Szabó and Vissy v. Hungary, no. 37138/14) and Russia in December 2015 (Roman Zakharov v. Russia, no. 47143/06). In the Szabó case, the Court considered that Hungarian law did not provide sufficient, precise, effective and comprehensive safeguards on surveillance orders or on the execution and potential redress of such measures, and Russian law did not provide adequate and effective guarantees against arbitrariness and the risk of abuse inherent in any system of secret surveillance. For more information, please contact Denise Lebeau-Marianna or Hugo Roy.