On October 25, TOTAL filed its opening brief in the Fifth Circuit in its declaratory judgment action against FERC. As it argued before the district court, TOTAL argues that FERC must go to federal court to prove its allegations of market manipulation under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). TOTAL claims that FERC cannot force respondents in such cases to defend themselves in an in-house agency proceeding before a FERC administrative law judge, subject only to deferential review in a federal appellate court. According to TOTAL, Section 24 of the NGA declares that federal district courts have “exclusive jurisdiction of violations” of the NGA and of “all” suits and actions to “enforce any liability or duty created by” the NGA.