Hansa Capital Management, a Commodity Futures Trading Commission-registered commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor, and its principal, Lothar Ruehling, agreed to pay a fine of US $20,000 to settle charges by the National Futures Association that a commodity pool they administered – Hansa Investment & Trading LLC – made non‑permitted loans or advances to Hansa Capital and engaged in other prohibited conduct. An NFA rule expressly prohibits a CPO from permitting a commodity pool to make a direct or indirect loan to the CPO or any other affiliated person or entity (click here to access NFA Rule 2-45).