The Securities and Exchange Commission filed enforcement actions naming 27 individuals and entities for promoting the stocks of multiple public companies through positive spins in published articles and blog entries, while not telling readers that the authors were indirectly paid by the public companies for their bullish sentiments. Moreover, the SEC claimed that in many of the articles the author expressly (and falsely) denied being compensated by the relevant public company. Of the 27 persons named, three are public companies, seven are stock promotion or communication firms, and 17 are individuals, including two chief executive officers, six firm employees and nine writers. All the defendants were charged with committing fraud. To date, 17 of the named defendants have settled their enforcement actions through fines ranging from US $2,200 to US $3 million. In the pending enforcement actions against 10 remaining defendants, the SEC seeks injunctions and fines.