As states continue to struggle with the pros and cons of non-competes, the White House has recently weighed in, siding largely with critics of non-competes. In Non-Compete Agreements: Analysis of the Usage, Potential Issues, and State Responses, the Obama Administration draws on a recent report from the U.S. Treasury Office of Economic Policy to provide an overview of research on the effects of non-competes as well as states’ efforts to limit their negative effects.
The White House Report acknowledges that non-competes have economically and socially beneficial uses such as protecting trade secrets and incentivizing investment in worker training. However, the Report notes that these agreements also may have detrimental effects by limiting worker mobility and inhibiting innovation. Specifically, the Report highlights ways in which workers may be disadvantaged by non-competes, including:
- Low-wage workers and others unlikely to possess trade secrets may be forced to sign non-competes;
- Workers may be asked to sign a non-compete only after accepting a job offer, when their bargaining power is reduced;
- The implications and enforceability of non-competes are often unclear to workers;
- Employers requiring non-competes often do not provide consideration beyond continued employment; and
- Non-competes may be enforceable even against workers fired without cause.
The Report concludes that although non-competes may play an important role in protecting businesses and encouraging innovation and investment in employees, they can also impose significant costs on workers, consumers, and the economy.
The Report marks the Obama Administration’s second recent foray into the realm of non-competes and trade secrets. The President recently signed into law the Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 (DTSA), which provides for the first time a federal civil remedy for the misappropriation of trade secrets, as discussed in detail by our IP colleagues. Although state legislators primarily hold the power to adopt non-compete reform, the Report indicates that the Obama Administration plans to continue to offer guidance in this area.